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Sloane's Liberality 1 

Andrew Borde, or Boorde 4 

Baillie's Works 9 

Prognostics 10 

Rapid Progress of Vaccination 13 

Tinctura Ejusdem 14 

Women with Horns 17 

Practice of the Hindoos 22 

Purples 30 

Hernia 31 

Dumoulin, or rather Molin, Physician. 33 

Buxton Waters, &c 35 

Superstition 39 

Japanese Medicine 40 

Music employed Medicinally 42 

Elixir of Life 43 

Emetics 44 

On Castration 45 

Francis Anthony 49 

VOL. III. a 



Haemorrhoides 52 

Curious Case, with some singular Remarks on Cancer 53 

Influence of Diet in (he Cure of Diseases 55 

Vaccination Abroad 5T 

Delirium 58 

Dr. Thompson 60 

Medical Thesis 63 

Chinese Physicians 64 

The Baillie Fund 65 

Anagram^Resolved 6T 

Epitaph on Dr. Young 68 

Case (jf Extirpation of the Parotid Gland. 70 

Borde's Atcount of Ale, &c 71 

Edward Wotton, M. D 73 

Jenner's Public Reward 75 

Apothecaries' Act 78 

John Hunter's Doctrines , 80 

Physicians and their Carriages 82 

History of Medical Science in Denmark 83 

Digestion 85 

Water Drinking 86 

Medical Zeal 87 

Thick Skulls . ., 89 

The Hall at Leyden 90 

A Frenchman's Opinion of French Surgery 91 

Ancient Physic and Pharmacy , 93 

Circulation of the Blood 98 



Longevity 98 

White Poppy Water .) 99 

Qaestions to be considered previous to going Ap- 
prentice to an Apothecary 100 

Dr. Ratcliffe 101 

Singular Case of Homicide 103 

Baron Bottgcr 103 

Surprising Cure of the Ague 104 

Forensic Phrenology 105 

Medical Education 106 

Dr. Atwell 107 

Character of Dr. Freind 108 

Cures of the Gout 112 

Dr. John Brown 114 

Old Age of Boerhaave ib. 

The Physician of the Mountain. 116 

State of Medicine in Sicily 120 

Ancient State of Surgery in Scotland 121 

Van Helmont 122 

State of Physicians in Spain 127 

Th» Antiquity of Physic ib. 

Memorable Case of Mental Insensibility 129 

History of a Black Physician 131 

A Parody 133 

Self-performed Ccesarian Sections ib. 

Two Heads better than One 135 

Case of Boulimia 136 

a 2 



Extraordinary Lactation 137 

The Poet and the Key 138 

Active Benevolence > 139 

Blood-letting and Leeching 140 

Perversion of the Apothecaries' Act 143 

The Potatoe 144 

Law respecting Foeticide 145 

Simple Remedy for a singular Disease 146 

Misunderstanding 147 

Voracity and Secret Correspondence 148 

Fatal Effects of Hydro-cyanic Acid 1 50 

Sir Christopher Pegge 151 

Discolouration of the Skin in Yellow Fever 159 

Peculiar Idiosyncracy 154 

Accouchements Extraordinaires 155 

Warm Bath 158 

Customs and Salaries of Physiqians before the Chris- 
tian Era 159 

Russian Surgery ib. 

An Exotic 161 

Professional Law with Forensic Medicine 162 

John Oporinus 163 

Medical Science during the Reign of James 1 164 

Accouchment of Gentlemen . . ib. 

Lunar Influence 166 

Dr. Theodore Goulston 169 

Extraordinary Pathological Phenomenon 170 



Mysterious Ointments 1 73 

Of Popular Medicines, &e. 175 

Dr. Edward Jorden 176 

Influence of the Imagination over the Faculties of 

Body and Mind 177 

Dr. Richard Bannister , 180 

A Woman that could not be hanged ib. 

Hunterian Museum 1 82 

Dr. Tobias Venner _ 188 

Water Doctors ib. 

English and Italian Schools of Medicine 189 

Dr. Thomas Marryat 194 

Peter Lowe and John Woodall 197 

A Surgical Essay 198 

Spiders 200 

A French Old Maid 201 

Dr. Haighton ib. 

Thomas Ly nacre, or Linacer 204 

Prescriptions 205 

Of a Lady wbo called in a Physician 206 

Power of Imagination ib. 

Physicians recommended 208 

Colonel Blood ib. 

Dr. Robert Fludd 209 

Long Female Tongues ib. 

Origin of Surgery 210 

Progress of Physicians 212 



Medical Character 220 

A Belly-full of Marine Stores 221 

A Heartless Roman 222 

M. Ferrari, of Xeres, on Yellow Fever ib. 

Bronghton 223 

Andreas Vesalius 224 

Dr. Christopher Merret 225 

A new Settlement of Surgical Accounts 228 

State of Medical Knowledge in the Fourteenth 

Century ib. 

Two Women in One Body 229 

Dr. Akenside 230 

Effects of Medical Colleges 235 

Distinction between a Physician and Manmidwife. . 236 

Ipecacuanha 239 

State of Medical Kuowledge in the Fourteenth 

Century ib. 

Cfflsarian Operation performed by the Husband 240 

Dr. Francis Anthony 242 

A Nobleman poisoned by his Mummies 243 

Tobacco 244 

Experiments on Dying 245 

Surgical Qualifications 247 

College Prosecutions 251 

Case of deficient Glottis 253 

Ichthyopbagy 254 

Dr. Thomas Willis ib. 



A Female short of Tongue ! 236 

Mr. William Curtis ib. 

A Physician Carted „ 261 

Dr. Monsey and Dean Swift 262 

Disease and the Doctor —-,... ih. 

Labrador Medicine 263 

Breathing a Vein 264 

Dr. Joseph Francis Borri 265 

A Child publicly Dissected by its Father 267 

Trial of Dr. Castaing, for poisoning with Acetate 

of Morphine ib. 

Physicians not always Philosophers 272 

Physiology of Wounds and other Injuries 273 

Dr. Ingram, of Barnet 274 

Prophetic Dream >. 275 

Embalming 276 

A Liver Wanting . r. , 278 

Sir William Petty ib. 

The Little Dwarf 280 

Parisian Faculty 281 

Dr. William Harvey , 283 

Death of Dr. Monsey 366 

Dr. Fothergill and the Apothecary..., ... 288 

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sloane's lieerality. 

feiR. Hans Sloane was a governor in almost 
every Hospital about London ; to each he gave 
a hundred pounds, in his life-time ; and, at his 
death, a sum more considerable. He formed 
the plan of a dispensatory, where the poor 
might be furnished with proper medicines at 
prime cost; which, with the assistance of the 
College of Physicians, was afterwards carried 
into execution. He gave the company of 
apothecaries the entire freehold of their Botani- 
cal Garden at Chelsea ; in the centre of which 
a marble statue of him is erected, admirably 
executed, by Rysback, and the likeness strik- 
ing. He did all he could to forward the colony 
in Georgia, in 1732; of the Foundling Hospital, 
in 1739, and formed the plan for bringing up 


Z MEDIC <l SE- AS©; 

the children. He was the first in England who 
introduced, into general practice, the use of 
bark, not only in fevers, but in a variety of other 
cases ; particularly in nervous disorders, in mor- 
tifications*' and. in violent hoemorhages. His. 
cabinet of curiosities, which he had taken so 
much pains to collect, he bequeathed to the 
public - ,' on condition, that the sum of £20,000- 
should be paid to his family ; which sum, 
though large,, was not the original cost, and 
scarce more than the-intrmsic value of the gold 
and silver medals-, the ores and precious stones, 
that were found in it. Besides these, there was 
his library, consisting of more than 50,000 
volumes; 347 of which, were illustrated with 
cuts, finely engraven, and coloured from nature; 
3566 manuscripts ; and an infinite number of 
rare and curious books. The parliament accept- 
ed his bequest; and that magnificent structure, 
called Montague-House, in Great Russell-street, 
Bloomsbury, was purchased for the reception of 
this collection, as well as for that of the Cot- 
tonian-library, and the Harleian manuscripts ; 
and thus, Sir* Hans Sloane became the founder 
of the British .Museum, one of the noblest col- 
lections in. the world. But the wits, who never 
spare a character, however eminently great and 
useful, more than once took occasion to ridicule 
this, good man for a taste, the utility of which 


they did not comprehend, but which was ho- 
noured with the unanimous approbation of the 
British legislature. Thus Young, in his " Love 
of Fame:" 

But what address can be more sublime 
Than Sioane — the foremost toyman of his time ? 
His nice ambition lies in curious fancies, 
His daughter's portion a rich shell enhances, 
And Ashmole's baby-house is, in his view, 
Britannia's golden mine — a rich Peru ! 
How his eyes languish ! how his thoughts adore, 
That painted coat which Joseph never wore ! 
He shews, on holidays, a sacred pin, 
That touch'd the ruff, thattouch'd Queen Bess's chin. 
Sat. iv. 113—122. 

He published " The Natural History of 
Jamaica," in 2 vols, folio; the first in 1707; 
the second in 1725. " This elaborate work," 
says Dr. Freind, in his ' History of Physic,') 
" greatly tends to the honor of our country, and 
the enriching of the Materia Medica." 

Sir Hans Sioane married, in 1695, Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Alderman Langley of London, 
who died in 1724, after she had brought one 
son, and three daughters, the youngest of which 
died in her infancy* Sarah, the eldest, married 
George Stradley, esq. of Poulton in Hampshire ; 
and Elizabeth, the second, married Lord Cado- 
gan, colonel of the second troop of horse- 
guards, and governor of Tilbury Fort. Hans 
B 2 


Town, Sloane-street, &c. near Chelsea, distin- 
guish, by their names, the site of the family- 
estate. A monument, to his memory, is placed 
over his grave, at the east end of Chelsea 
church-yard, next the river; — the emblem an 
egg surrounded by a serpent. 


This eccentric character forms a striking con- 
trast with the grave and respectable personages 
who, at that time, maintained the dignity of a 
learned and liberal profession. The reputation 
which Andrew Borde, who, in latin, styles him- 
self Andreas Perforatus, acquired among his 
contemporaries, must, nevertheless, be consi- 
dered as a symptom of still-remaining barbarism 
in the manners of the time in which he lived. 
He was educated at Oxford, and before he had 
taken a degree, entered among the Carthusian 
friars, near London ; whom, sometime after- 
wards, he left, and applied himself to the study 
of physic at Oxford ; after which he travelled 
through most parts of Europe, and part of 
Africa. He settled, on his return, at Winches- 
ter, and practised, in his profession, with con- 
siderable reputation. In 1541 and 1542, we 
Ind him residing at Montpellier, where, in all 
probability, he took his degree of M. D., in 
which he was shortly afterwards at Oxford. 


He lived, for some time, at Pevensey, and after- 
wards returned to Winchester. Here he con- 
stantly practised the austerities of the order to 
which he had formerly belonged, and professed 
celibacy, writing with vehemence against such 
ecclesiastics as broke their vows by marriage. 
This, perhaps, was the reason why he was ac- 
cused, by a married bishop, of violating his 
own pretensions to chastity by more illicit in- 
dulgences. Certain it is, that his character was 
very odd and whimsical, as more particularly 
will appear from the books he wrote ; we are, 
nevertheless, told that he was esteemed in his 
time as a man of great wit and learning, and 
as an excellent physician; in which latter capa- 
city, he is said to have served Henry VIII. As 
Winchester was then a royal residence, he, 
perhaps, might be his majesty's titular physician 
in that place. He is also mentioned as a mem- 
ber of the Royal College of Physicians. That 
he was not, however, of such eminence as to 
rank with the first of his profession, may be 
inferred from his becoming a prisoner in the 
Fleet prison, where he died, in April, 1549. 
Bale, who bore no good-will towards any one 
attached to popery, intimates, that Borde has- 
tened his death by poison, on the discovery of 
his keeping a brothel for his brother bachelors. 
Borde was the author of several works, very 


various in their subjects. One of the most im- 
portant of these is entitled, " A Book of the 
Instruction of Knowledge," printed in London, 
in 1542, professing to teach all kinds of lan- 
guages, the customs and fashions of all coun- 
tries, and the value of every species of coin. 
It is written partly in verse and partly in prose ; 
and divided into thirty-nine chapters, before 
each of which is a wooden cut, representing a 
man in the habit of some particular country. 

To the seventh chapter of this work, is pre- 
fixed the effigies of the author, under a canopy, 
with a gown, a laurel on his head, and a book 
before him. The title of the chapter declares 
that " therein is shewn how the author dwelt 
in Scotland and other islands, and went through 
and round about Christendom." 

The " Breviarie of Health" re the first of his 
medical works, supposed by Fuller to be the 
earliest medical piece written in English. It 
was published in 1547. It has a prologue ad- 
dressed to physicians, which commences in the 
following curious style: — " Egregious doctors 
and masters of the eximious and arcane sci- 
ence of physic, of your urbanity exasperate 
not yourselves against me for making this little 

The work itself contains a sboTt account, in 
alphabetical Drder, of all diseases and their 


remedies, adapted to the use of the vulgar. ' It 
is a very trifling and weak performance, ex- 
tremely coarse in language and injudicious in 
matter, though not more so, perhaps, than 
some much later works of the same kind. The 
names, we are told, of diseases are professed 
to be given in Arabic, Greek, and Latin, and 
barbarous medical dialect; but either from igno- 
rance of the author, or the blundering of the 
printer, the words are almost all corrupted. 
But that due proportion of this belongs to the 
author, appears from many strange mistakes, 
which could only originate with him, of which 
one of the most curious is his derivation of the 
word Gonorrhoea from Gomorrba. 

Andreas Perforatus does not confine himself 
exclusively to the diseases of the body, but 
also treats of those of the mind ; as in the fol- 
lowing instances, which may serve for a speci- 
men of his manner: — 

" The 174 chapter doth shew of an infirmitie 
named Hereos. 

" Hereos is the Greke worde. In Latin it is named 
amor. In English it is named Iove-sicke/ and women may 
have this sickness as' well as men. Young persons be 
much troubled with this impediment." 

" The cause of this infirmitie. 

" This infirmitie doth come from amours, which is a 
fervent love for to have carnal copulacion with the party 


that is loved ; and, if it cannot be obtained, some be so 
folish that they be ravished of theyr wittes." 

" A remedie. 

" First, I do advertise every person not to set to the hart 
that another doth set at the hele, let no man set his love 
so far, but that he may withdraw it betime, and muse not, 
but use mirth and merry company, and be wyse and not 

A more effectual remedy is given under the 
head Satyriasis; for which he recommends leap- 
ing into a great vessel of cold water, and ap- 
plying nettles to the offending part. 

A second part of this work, containing some 
articles omitted in the first, is termed the extra- 
vagants. They are printed together in quarto, 
London, 1575. At the conclusion of the first 
part he says, " here endeth the first boke, exa- 
mined in Oxforde in June, 1546." 

Another of this author's medical works is 
entitled " Compendyous Regimente, or Dietary 
of Health made in Mount Pyllon." In this 
work there is a good deal of plain sense without 
much novelty or ingenuity in his precepts. The 
only part in which any thing appears worth 
quoting, is that where he treats on the articles 
of diet of use in his time. The work, however, 
is comprehensive in its subject, and contains 
advice relative to the situation and building of 
his house — the regulation of a family, and the 

MKDICAL Ml-.V. [) 

ordering of economical matters, as well as direc- 
tions relative to the non-naturals. 

baillie's wouks. 

Dr. Baillie's writings were confined to his 
profession, but they were numerous and valu- 
able. " The Morbid Anatomy of some of the 
most important parts of the Human Body," is 
the work upon which his fame as an author 
principally rests ; and which not only has made 
him known in every part of Europe, and 
wherever medical science is cultivated, but will 
secure him a name in succeeding times. Like 
every thing that he did, it was modest and 
unpretending. A perfect knowledge of his sub- 
ject, acquired in the midst of the fullest oppor- 
tunities, enabled him to compress into a small 
volume as much useful information as exists in 
the combined works of Bonetus, Morgagni, and 
Lieutand. Its publication, which was in 1795, 
formed an era in the history of medicine in this 

The work consisted at first of a plain state- 
ment of facts, — the description of the appear- 
ances presented on dissection, or which could 
be preserved and exhibited. In the second 
edition, Dr. Baillie added, what was an attempt 
of greater difficulty, which will require the expe- 
rience of successive lives to perfect; namely, the 


narration of symptoms corresponding with the 
morbid appearances. 

Dr. Baillie's next work was " A Series of 
Engravings, to illustrate some Parts of Mor- 
bid Anatomy." These splendid engravings, 
which were executed from admirable drawings 
made by Mr. Clift, the Conservator of the 
Hunterian Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and 
which were creditable at once to Dr. Baillie's 
own taste and liberality, and to the state of the 
arts in this country, were published in fasciculi, 
which appeared at intervals. The publication 
of them began in 1799, and was completed in 
1802. Dr. Baillie thus laid a solid foundation 
for pathology, and did for his profession what 
scarcely any physician had done before his 

Besides these great works, Dr. Baillie pub- 
lished " An Anatomical Description of the 
Gravid Uterus." He also contributed largely 
to the Transactions and medical Collections of 
his time. 


A traveller arriving at a certain city late in 
the evening, was taken ill, and sent for a phy- 
sician, who learning, from the messenger, that 
the patient complained of the cholic, sent him 
something to afford present relief, and being 


himself fatigued, deferred visiting him till the 
following dav. 

The messenger quickly returned, to express 
the indignation of the wife at the refusal of the 
physician immediately to visit her husband, 
who was a man of consequence. The doctor, 
however, repeated his refusal, saying his at- 
tendance was not requisite, and directing him 
to another physician ; at the same time, repeat- 
ing his promise to call the following day. 

On the following morning, he accordingly 
betook himself to the ion where his patient 
lodged, and as soon as his name was an- 
nounced, he beheld the wife rush out like a 
fury from a dark place into the hall. She 
heaped abuse on him, as a man wanting in 
humanity, for refusing to visit a person of the 
consequence of her husband, when sent for. 
He beheld her mildly, and begged her, as she 
was so much concerned about her husband, 
that she would immediately dispatch a servant 
for a medicine he had left at home, and which 
he expected would be of much service to him ; 
she immediately went out to send the servant 
as directed. In the mean time, the physician 
went up to his patient, and told him if he had 
any matters of consequence to settle with his 
wife before she died, he should speedily set 
about it, without any loss of time, for that she 


certainly would not be alive the following day 
at the same hour. The sick man was not a 
little surprized at this unexpected intelligence; 
considering, however, that his wife was pos- 
sessed of immense wealth, which, if she died 
intestate, would pass to other branches of her 
family, as soon as she returned, he calmly, ob- 
served to her, that as they were both now in a 
foreign country, it would be prudent to secure 
their fortunes reciprocally to each other by will, 
in case of any fatal event. She chearfully 
acquiesced, and dying in the course of the 
night, left her husband extremely rich. 

The story of this singular prediction quickly 
spread abroad. The other physicians of the 
city, which was the capital of a province, were 
naturally anxious to know by what means he 
was enabled to predict, with so much certainty, 
an event so unexpected ; to which he replied, 
that, " in the course of attending the anatomi- 
cal lectures of the celebrated Boerhaave, he 
had learned, that if the pupil of the eye ap- 
peared very much dilated, and on coming sud- 
denly from a dark place into a bright light, it 
did not in the least contract, it was a certain 
symptom that some blood-vessel in the brain 
had already given way, and that death was at 
no great distance, particularly if, as was the 
case here, although the person was in a great 


passion, there were no signs of rage in the eyes. 
— Greyory. 


The honour of commencing the practice of 
vaccination in London is due to Mr. Cline. In 
the month of July, 1798, Mr. Cline inoculated 
a child at St. Thomas's Hospital with vaccine 
virus received from Dr. Jenner. He afterwards 
put the child to the test of inoculation with 
small-pox matter in three places, which it 
resisted. On that occasion, Mr. Cline informed 
Dr. Jenner, that Dr. Lister, formerly physician 
to the Small-pox Hospital, and himself, were 
convinced of the efficacy of the cow-pox, and 
that the substitution of that mild disease for the 
small-pox, promised to be one of the greatest 
improvements ever made in medicine. He 
added, " the more I think on the subject the 
more I am impressed with its importance." 

Considerable opposition, however, was mani- 
fested to the new practice by several eminent 
medical men. Dr. Pearson in particular pub- 
lished a very unfavourable report of a number 
of experiments which he and Dr. Woodville had 
made on the subject. Dr. Jenner, therefore, 
felt it incumbent on him to defend the accuracy 
of his own statements ; and accordingly, in 
1799, he published " Further Observations on 


the Variolse Vaccina:;" and subsequently, in 
answer to further attacks by Dr. Pearson and 
Dr. Woodville, "A Continuation of Facts and 
Observations relative to the Vaccine Variolae." 
In these treatises, Dr. Jenner replied to his 
opponents with great dignity, moderation, and 
temper; vindicating the practice of vaccine 
inoculation from the various charges brought 
against it; and proving that what was ascribed 
to the cow-pox was in reality occasioned by the 
small-pox, propagated in disguise. 

To the effect of these answers, the favourable 
reports of other practitioners, and a testimonial 
recommending the practice, signed by a consi- 
derable number of the most eminent physicians 
and surgeons in the metropolis, and published 
in the Medical Journal, and other respectable 
channels of information, greatly contributed. 
Mr. Ring especially distinguished himself in the 
defence of Dr. Jenner. 


A London Apothecary, of whom there are 
many whose- attainments do not rise much 
above the level of the individual here described, 
who had perched himself near one of the new 
squares, had a prescription brought him from 
the pen of an M. D. westward, obviously level- 
led at a highly nervous case ; and on which,, it: 


should seem, that the writer had resolved to try 
the full efficacy of valerian ; for, not satisfied 
with its concentration in the form of — " Extract, 
rod. va'er." he had superadded an order for its 
being duly accompanied with the " tinctuva 
ejusdem." This most completely staggered the 
learned person to whom the paper was now 
committed. In vain did he turn to all the 
pharmacopoeias, new and old, of London or Edin- 
burgh ; and ran over the indexes of more intelli- 
gible Dispensatories, which compose the library 
stock of these knights of the pestle. The word 
" ejusdem" was an insurmountable stumbling- 
block; the drug was not to be found, either in 
the spirituous tincture, or- in any other in the 
various chemical forms through which he dili- 
gently hunted for it; and being a distinct 
order, the usual guess of a succedaneum could 
not be hazarded. In this dilemma, concluding, 
that he should not fail to find, at some of the 
great medicine-mongering druggists in the city, 
what he could not make out among his own 
common-place assortment, ha set off at full 
speed eastward, having first accurately copied 
the name as he found it in the prescription. 
With this, he made his way into one of those 
large shops ; and, presenting it boldly, inquired 
whether they had get the article in a prepared 
stale as noted. The paper was received by ?. 


youth at the counter, who, by the gape of his 
mouth, as he re-perused the word, which, in its 
disconnected situation, he did not immediately 
recognize, evinced that his knowledge on the 
subject was precisely on a level with that of the 
enquirer; and, after some humming and hesi- 
tation, he retired a few steps to put the paper 
into the hands of the principal, who chanced to 
be writing a letter at the desk. This gentleman, 
who possessed a much more extensive and 
classical knowledge of the Latin tongue than 
was necessary for the conduct of his own busi- 
ness, and who was a humourous observer of cha- 
racter, immediately smoked the gross ignorance 
of the applicant; and it was with some difficulty 
he restrained a burst of laughter, as he turned 
his eye to take measure of the other's inanity, 
stifling it as well as he could with — " O yes, sir! 
— we have the article ; and I'll attend you my- 
self, the moment I have folded up a letter." — 
This furnished the mgans of composing his fea- 
tures into all due gravity ; when making his 
advance towards the counter, under the mask 
of great apparent attention, he continued — " So, 
Sir! I presume you want this for the purpose of 
combining with — ," — " Precisely so, sir !" " And 
you wish it of the first quality?" — "Sir! I 
should be sorry to trifle with the just expecta- 
tion of any man by the use of a secondary 


article." — " Your delicacy, sir, is highly com- 
mendable ; and I will be equally ingenuous 
with you : — we have it; — but, I am afraid not 
quite in that state in which a gentleman like 
you, perhaps, ought to place much reliance on 
it. We had an accident with our last: — next 
week we shall be enabled to supply any of 
your future wants. In the mean time, as it 
is a thing rather out of the usual routine 
of the shops, I would advise you to step to 
Apothecaries' Hall for your present supply, 
where you cannot fail to meet with it, and with 
the greatest chance of perfection ; and where you 
will) undoubtedly, be enabled to. procure such 
further information concerning the tinctura ejus- 
dem, as you may, probably, find of some impor- 
tance to you hereafter. — Sir ! I wish you a very 
good morning!" so saying, he dismissed the 
gentleman, highly gratified with this apparent 
superflux of ingenuousness and civility, and 
literally blind to the sardonic smile-grin with 
which he was sent on the errand of exposing his 
ignorance at the fountain-head. 


We copy the title of a very scarce tract: " A 
brief Narrative of a strange and wonderful Old 
Woman, that hath a Pair of Horns growing 
upon her Head : giving, a true account how they 

VOL. III. c 


have several times, after their being shed, 
grown again : declaring the place of her birth, 
her education, and conversation; with the first 
occasion of their growth, the time of their con- 
tinuance, and where she is now to be seen, viz. 
at the sign of the Swan, near Charing Cross. 
With allowance. London : printed by T. J. 
1676, small 4to." As the tract is particularly 
scarce, we will give the whole of it. 

" Reader : it may be, upon the first view of the title of 
this short relation, thou wilt throw it down with all the 
carelessness imaginable, supposing it to be but an idle and 
impertinent fiction, such as some frontless persons have 
too frequently exposed to public view, on purpose to im- 
pose upon the credulity of the gazing multitude, who are 
apt to gaze at wonders, and to think all true as the gospel 
that they see in print. That this may court thy more 
favourable thoughts, call to minde that such as intend to 
deceive, tell of wonders that are too remote, and too fat- 
distant from thee either suddenly to disprove, or presently 
to confirm thyself in the belief of what they have told. 
This gives thee an account of what thou mayest with little 
trouble, and as small espence, behold. Take but a walk 
to the Swan, in the Strand, near Charing Cross, and there 
thou mayest satisfie thy curiosity, and be able to tell the 
world whether this following narration be truth or inven- 
tion. There thou, mayest see a woman hath horns grow- 
ing upon the hinder part of her head; an object irjt onely 
worthy of your sight but admiration too ! She is 76 years of 
age, bred and born in the parish of Shotwick, in Cheshire, 
and within four mile3 of Chester; tenant unto his blessed 
Majesty, upon a farm of 16/. per annum ; so that she is not 
necessitated to this course of life, or to deceive the credu- 


lous and short-sighted people; but to manifest to the world 
such a wonder in nature as hath neither been read nor 
heard of since the creation. She was wife to one Master 
Henry Davies, who dyed 35 years passed, and since, the 
hath lived a religious widow all along, of a spotless and 
unblameable life and conversation, of singular use to her 
neighbours and acquaintance, who brought her many 
miles on her journey. This strange and stupendous effect 
began first from a soreness in that place where now the 
horns grew ; which (as 'tis thought) was occasioned by 
wearing a straight hat (mark that!). This soreness con- 
tinued twenty years, in which time it miserably afflicted 
this good woman, and ripened gradually into a wenn near 
the bigness of a large hen egg, which continued for the 
space of five years, more sadly tormenting her than be- 
fore; after which time it was, by a strange operation of 
nature, changed into horns, which are in shew and sub- 
stance much like a ram's horn, solid and wrinckled, but 
sadly grieving the old woman, especially upon the change 
of weather. But more accurately to describe its nature 
and manner of production, may be a subject proper for 
a colledge of physitians; and no question but it will be 
esteemed worthy to employ the ingenious vertuosos of the 
age, who need not their glasses to magnifie its wonder. 
She hath cast her horns three times already ; the first 
time was but a single horn, which grew long, but as slen- 
der as an oaten straw : the second was thicker than the 
former: the two first Mr. Hewson, minister of Shotwick 
(to whos3 wife this rarity was firjt discovered) obtained 
uf the old woman his parishioner: they kept not an equal 
distance of time in falling off, some at three, some at four, 
and another at four years and a half's growth. The third 
time grew two horns, both which were beat off by a fall 
backward; one of them an English Lord obtained, aud 

c 2 


(as is reported) presented it to the French King for die 
greatest rarity in nature, and received with no less admira- 
tion. The other (which was the largest) was nine inches 
long, and two inches about; it is much valued for the 
novelty, a greater than any John Tradeskin (probably 
John Tradescant, who had a museum, is here meant) can 
set to view, or the greatest traveller can with truth affirm 
to have seen. Sir Willoughby Aston hath also another 
horn, which dropt from this woman's head, and reserves 
it as a choice rarity. At this present she hath a paire of 
horns upon her head of six months' growth. And 'tis not 
without reason believed, they will, in a short time, bee 
larger than any of the former; for still the latter have 
exceeded the former in bignes. The circumstance of this 
relation considered or examined, at least with the sight of 
her, I hope it will not readily be believed to be an impos- 
ture, or , artificial projecting: for so grossly to impose 
upon his Majesty, and all his loyal subjects, would be an 
unpardonable crime, and would deserve men's contempt, 
aad not their company, and certainly expose the party to 
the violence of a rude multitude, who discovering a cheat, 
would, I believe, soon make the old woman pull in her 
horns." There is a print of this woman in Dr. Charles 
Leigh's Natural History of Lancashire, Cheshire, and the 
Peake of Derbyshire, folio, tab. 7. Her picture and one 
of her horns are in Ashmole's Museum, and the other 
is said to be in the British Museum. 

This is not the only instance of human 
horns. In the Journal of the Learned, August, 
1672, we read of a man who had a horn grow- 
ing out of one of the joints under his legs. 
Also, that a maid at Palermo had horns like 
those of a youngbull. It is related by Bayle, 


from a letter of Dr. Sylvius, (Nouvelles de la 
Republique des Lettres, July, 1686) of " A girl 
(says he) born of poor parents at Waterford, in 
Ireland, east forth, some short time after her 
birth, several horns like unto those of rams, not 
in the head, but in the joints of her arms, feet, 
hands, and fingers, and in the fleshy parts of her 
body. What is more considerable still is, that 
they came forth in numbers out of her breast 
when she came to be nine years of age, which 
was the time that our society (at Dublin) ex- 
amined the child. The body of that girl is dry, 
and as consumed, too dry and too hot. The 
horns are ash-coloured, mixed with yellow, and 
their substance is hard, without any stench. 
They endeavoured at first to eradicate those 
horns ; but they shot forth again, and were 
much bigger than at first." 

It appears that Dr. William Roots, of King- 
ston-upon-Thames, amputated an excrescence 
of this sort, in February, 1811, exactly resem- 
bling a ram's horn, from the head of a man 
between fifty and sixty years of age, a drawing 
of which, in its growing state, he presented to 
Sir Astley Cooper. The sufferer's name was 
John Kennedy, a gardener at Thames Ditton, 
in Surry. 



The successful cultivation of the healing art 
by European skill and learning, has left us 
nothing to look for from the Hindoos. In the 
present state of their knowledge, indeed, we 
have every thing to teach them, but we are not 
to infer, from what we now behold, that they 
were never better instructed. Their nidan, or 
diagnosis, appears to define and distinguish 
symptoms with great accuracy, and their 
druvyabhidhana, or materia-medica, is sufficient- 
ly voluminous. They have also paid great atten- 
tion to regimen and diet, and have a number of 
works on the food and general treatment suited 
to the complaint, or favourable to the operation 
of medicine administered ; this branch they en- 
titled pathapatJiya. To these are to be added, 
the chikitsa, or medical treatment of diseases ; 
on which subject they have a variety of compo- 
sitions, containing much absurdity, with much 
that is of value; and the rosavidya, or phar- 
macy, in which they are most deficient. All 
these works, however, are of little avail to the 
present generation, as they are- very rarely 
studied, and still more rarely understood by 
any of the practising empirics. 

The division of the science thus noticed, as 
existing in books, exclude two important 


branches, without which the whole system is 
defective — Anatomy and Surgery. We can 
easily imagine that these were not likely to have 
been much cultivated in Hindostan; and that 
local disadvantages, and religious prejudices, 
might have formed very serious impediments to 
their acquirement. Something of the former 
might be accidentally picked up, by the occa- 
sional inspection of dead bodies, which happen- 
ed to be exposed ; but we can scarcely expect 
dissections of the human species among the 
Hindoos, when we find that the Greeks them- 
selves did not venture beyond quadrupeds, even 
in the time of Aristotle. In the absence of 
anatomy, of course, little was to be looked for 
in surgery ; and it has been taken for granted, 
that, whatever might have been the character 
of medical science amongst the Hindoos, in 
former days, an almost utter ignorance has 
always prevailed on the subjects most essential 
to its perfect possession and practical applica- 
tion. These ideas, however, are perhaps par- 
tially erroneous, and rest on our imperfect know- 
ledge of the medical literature of the Hindoos. 
The Hindoo compositions on medical subjects, 
and even their own accounts of them, whether 
fables or facts, have hitherto been scarcely 
adverted to by Sanscrit scholars. The subject 
is not of general interest ; and requires a two • 


fold qualification, not likely to be often com- 
bined in the individual who embarks in it; as it 
is also a matter more of curiosity than utility, 
there is little inducement to its prosecution. At 
the same time, vulgar errors are always mis- 
chievous, and their correction would in some 
sort repay the labour that should effect so salu- 
tary a purpose. There are, no doubt, amongst 
the members of the medical profession in India, 
many competent to the , task of giving to the 
world an accurate, view. of the Hindoo System; 
and it is not intended here to anticipate any 
part of their labours, in the few desultory notices 
we propose., to offer, on, the existence and history 
of Hindoo surgery. 

The Ayur Veda, as the medical writings of 
the highest antiquity and authority are collec- 
tively called, is considered to be a portion of the 
fourth or athaxva veda, and is consequently the 
work of Brahma ; by him it was communicated 
to Dacsha the Prajapati; and by him the two 
Aswins, or sons of Surya, the Sun, were in- 
structed in it, and they then became the medical 
attendants of the gods ; a genealogy that can- 
not fail recalling to us the two sons of Escu- 
lapius, and their descent from Apollo. Now 
what were the duties of the Aswins, according 
to Hindoo authority? the gods, enjoying eternal 
youth and health, stood ia no need of phy- 


."^cians, and consequently they held no such 
sinecure station. The wars between the gods and 
the demons, however, and the conflicts among 
the gods themselves, in which wounds might be 
suffered although death was not inflicted, re- 
quired chirurgical aid ; and it was this, accord- 
ingly, which the two Aswins rendered. They 
performed many extraordinary cures, as might 
have been expected, from their superhuman 
character. When Brahma's fifth head was cut 
off by Rudra, they replaced it — a feat worthy 
their exalted rank in the profession to which 
they belonged, and little capable of imitation, 
by their unworthy successors. 

The meaning of these legendary absurdities 
is clear enough, and is conformable to the tenor 
of all history. Man, in the semi-barbarous 
state, if not more subject to external injuries 
than internal disease, was at least more likely 
to seek remedies for the former, which were 
obvious to his senses, than to imagine the means 
of relieving the latter, whose nature he could 
so little comprehend. 

Surgical, therefore, preceded medicinal skill ; 
as Celsus has asserted, when commenting on 
Homer's account of Podalirius and Machaon, 
who were not consulted, he says, during the 
plague in the Grecian camp, although regularly 
employed to extract darts and heal wounds. 


The same position is maintained, as w« shall 
hereafter see, by the Hindoo writers, in plain as 
well as in legendary language. 

According to some authorities, the Aswins 
instructed Indra, and Indra was the preceptor 
of Dhanwantari; but others make Atreya, Bha- 
radwaja, and Charaka prior to the latter. Cha- 
raka's work, which goes by his name, is extant. 
Dhanwantari is also styled Kasiraja, prince of 
Kasi or Benares. His disciple was Surutta, the 
son of Viswamitra, and consequently a contem- 
porary of Rama; his work also exists, and is our 
chief guide at present. It is unquestionably of 
some antiquity : but it is not easy to form any 
conjecture of its real date, except that it cannot 
have the prodigious age which Hindoo fable 
assigns to it; it is sufficient to know, that it is 
perhaps the oldest work on the subject except- 
ing that of Charaka, which the Hindoos possess. 
One commentary on the text, made by Ubhattas, 
a Cashmerian, is probably as old as the twelfth 
or thirteenth century ; and his comment, it is 
believed, was preceded by others. The work 
is divided into six portions — the sutra st'hana, 
or chirurgical definitions ; the nidana st'hana, 
or section on symptoms, or diagnosis ; sariva 
st'hana, anatomy ; chikitsa st'hana, the internal 
application of medicines ; halpa st'hana, anti- 
dotes ; uttara st'hana, o« supplementary section, 


on various local diseases, or affections of the 
eyes, ears, &c. 

In all these divisions, however, surgery and 
not general medicine is the object of the 

The Ayur Veda, which originally consisted 
of one hundred sections, of a thousand stanzas 
each, was adapted to the limited faculties and 
life of man, by its distribution into eight sub- 
divisions, the enumeration of which conveys to 
us an accurate idea of the objects of the Ars 
Medendi amongst the Hindoos. The divisions 
are thus enumerated: — 1. Salia; 2. Salakya; 
3. Kay a Chikitsa; 4. Bhutavidya ; 5. Kaumara- 
bhritya; 6. Agada; 7. Rosayana; and 8. Baji- 
korana. They are explained as follow : 

1. Salia is the art of extracting extraneous 
substances, whether of glass, wood, earth, metal, 
bone, &c. — violently or accidentally introduced 
into the human body; with the treatment of the 
inflammation and suppuration thereby induced ; 
and by analogy, the cure of all phlegmonoid 
tumours and abscesses. The word salia means 
a dart or arrow, and points clearly to the origin 
of this branch - of the Hindoo science. In like 
manner the Hiatros, or physician of the Greeks 
was derived, according to Sextus Empiricus, 
from Hios, an arrow or dart. 

2. Salakya is the treatment of external or- 


ganic affections or diseases of the eyes, ears, 
nose, &c. It is derived from Salaka, -which 
means any thin and sharp instrument, and is 
either applicable in the same manner as Salia, 
to the active causes of the morbid state, or it is 
borrowed from the generic name of the slender 
probes and needles used in operations on the 
parts affected. 

3. Kaya Chikitsa is, as the name implies, the 
application of the Ars Medendi (Chikitsa) to the 
body in general (Kaya), and forms what we 
mean by the science of medicine ; the two pre- 
ceding divisions constitute the surgery of modern 

4. Bhutavidya is the restoration of the facul- 
ties from a disorganized state, induced by demo- 
niacal possession. This art has vanished before 
the diffusion of knowledge, but it formed a very 
important branch of medical practice through 
all the schools, Greek, Arabic, or European, and 
descended to days very near our own, as a 
reference to Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy 
may prove to general readers. 

5. Kaumarabhritya means the care of infancy, 
comprehending not only the management of 
children from their birth, but the treatment Of 
irregular lactic secretion, and puerperal dis- 
orders in mothers and nurses ; this holds with » 
us also the place that its importance claims. 


6. Agada is the administration of antidotes, 
a subject as far as it rests upon scientific princi- 
ples, is blended with our medicine and surgery. 

7. Rasayana is chemistry, or more correctly 
alchemy, as the chief end of the chemical com- 
binations it describes, and which are mostly 
metallurgic, is the discovery of the universal 
medicine ; the elixir that was to render health 
permanent and life perpetual. 

8. The last branch, Bajikarana, professes to 
promote the increase of the human race ; an 
illusory research, ywhich, as well as the preced- 
ing, is not without its parallel in ancient and 
modern- times. 

There is, therefore, included in these branches 
all the real and fanciful pursuits of physicians 
of every time and place. Suruta, however, con- 
fines his own work to the classes Salya and 
Salakya, or surgery : although, by an arrange- 
ment not uncommon with our own writers, he 
introduces occasionally the treatment of gene- 
ral diseases, and the management of women 
and children, when discussing those topics 
to which they bear relation. Pure surgery, 
however, is his aim ; and it is the particular 
recommendation of Dhauwautori ; Salia being, 
he declares expressly, " the first and best of the 
medical sciences, less liable than any other of 
the fallacies of conjectural and inferential prac- 


tice, pure in itself, perpetual in its applicability, 
the worthy produce of heaven and certain source 
of fame." 

From these premises we may be satisfied that 
surgery was once extensively cultivated and 
highly esteemed by the Hindoos. Its rational 
principles and scientific practice are, however, 
now, it may be admitted, wholly unknown to 
them ; what they formerly were may, at some 
future period, be detailed. 

Occasionally, after death, the body is covered 
with large red blotches, which are vulgarly 
termed purples, and it is, therefore, often 
alleged that the physician had mistaken the 
disease, as the patient died of the purples, 
which manifested themselves after death. These 
spots are, in fact, only the dissolved blood 
stagnating in the small vessels. 

In the history of the Academy of Sciences 
may be found a regular case of epidemic pur- 
ples, combined with worms, which occurred 
in Lorraine. When the sick were properly 
treated, a number of worms were discharged, 
and the purple eruption made its appearance. 
Those who recovered lost the whole epidermis ; 
others died within three days of the attack, 
and the bodies became so quickly putrid, that 


those employed to bury them frequently caught 
the contagion. 

A species of purple occurs in China, which is 
cured in the following strange manner: They 
dip the pith of a rush in oil, which they set on 
fire, and apply the flame in succession to the 
spots. The skin cracks, with a kind of snap- 
ping sound. The corrupted blood is squeezed 
out, and a little powdered ginger rubbed into 
the part. This must doubtless be a painful 
remedy, but its efficacy is so well ascertained 
by experience, that it is universally employed. 
In the " Leltres Edifiantes" various missiona- 
ries declare they have seen wonderful cures 
performed by this means. 

A young surgeon, being under examination 
respecting the treatment of rupture, was asked 
what means of cure he would employ in a case 
of strangulated Hernia. Having missed one 
mean, that sometimes succeeds in desperate 
cases, the application of ice, he was reminded 
of it by the examiner, who inquired how he 
would employ that remedy. He replied, with 
much simplicity and gravity, that he would 
warm the ice along with some butter or grease, 
and so prepare a cataplasm to be applied to the 
tumor. The merriment excited by this reply, 


put an end to the examination. — The simplicity 
of this young man was not more singular than 
the politeness of one of our own court physi- 
cians. One of the princesses being a little 
indisposed, inquired of the attendant physician 
" whether she might not have a little ice]" 
The reply of course was, " Certainly." His 

M , who takes great concern in all such 

matters, observed that it might, perhaps, be too 
cold for the patient's stomach. " If your 

M thinks so, it is easy to take the chill off 

it," replies the courtly Doctor. 


If you have occasion for physicians, says the 
Schola Salernitina, there are three to whom 
you may apply at all times with safety ; these 
are, a cheerful mind, -moderate exercise, and a 
regulated regimen. So said Dumoulin, the 
most celebrated physician of his time. In his 
last moments, being surrounded by several of 
Jus colleagues, who deplored his loss, lie 
addressed them thus : — " Gentlemen, I leave 
behind me three excellent physicians." Each 
of the doctors present conceived himself to be 
one of the three ; but they were soon unde- 
ceived, when Dumoulin informed them, that 
the three he meant were water, exercise, and 


Dumoulin was fond of money, and he re- 
ceived a great deal. Many anecdotes are men- 
tioned respecting this matter. On leaving one 
of his patients, who had made him a handsome 
payment in coined money, as the amount was 
considerable, he put it into his pocket. On 
returning home, his first thought was to count 
the number of pieces he had received. The 
attention he paid to the reckoning prevented 
him from perceiving a friend who was waiting 
for him in his apartment. This person plea- 
santly said, " allow me to hand you a chair." 
Dumoulin looked at him with a contemptuous 
sneer, saying, " learn, blockhead, that a man 
never feels tired when counting his money." 

A great love for this precious metal is gene- 
rally accompanied with a slight tincture of ava- 
rice. In this respect Dumoulin yielded to no 
one. On one occasion he was sent for to visit 
the prince, Count of Clermont, who was indis- 
posed. The surgeon who came for him was 
in one of the royal carriages, driven by the 
body coachman. After the visit to the prince, 
Dumoulin took the liberty of using the car- 
riage to pay two or three other visits m "die 
neighbourhood of the prince's residence. After 
the last visit, he felt in his pockets for some- 
lime; and at length found sixpence, which he 
tendered to the coachman. This was of course 


refused, but he frequently amused himself ha 
repeating this tale to his associate. 

Dumoulin received three louis for every 
visit to the prince. On another occasion, in 
consultation with M. Sylva, a physician not 
less famous than himself, but better informed, 
and less interested, he visited a man of high 
rank, who was so dangerously ill, that at their 
last visit he died in their hands. This sudden 
death being quite unexpected, it occasioned 
considerable consternation and murmur in the 
apartment, and particularly in the anti-cham- 
ber, where the domestics allowed themselves 
to adopt the most licentious conversation, and 
even threatened them with unpleasant con- 
sequences. M. Sylva, naturally timid, was 
alarmed, and communicated his fears to M. 
Dumoulin, saying, " By what door shall we 
escape f Dumoulin, having no fear but that 
of not being paid, replied, " by the door where 
they pay," and intrepidly left the apartment, 
followed by Sylva, who trembled. This con- 
stitutes a trait of character equalled by the fol- 

A great economist, not to say a miser, having 
heard that Dumoulin far surpassed him in 
saving knowledge, waited on him one winter 
evening, about eight o'clock. He found hint 
sitting in a small room, illuminated, or rather 


darkened, by the smokey light of a single lamp. 
On entering, he said to him, " I have heard 
that you are one of the greatest economists 
existing; I also am so inclined; but, conscious 
of my imperfection, I should be happy to 
become your pupil on this point. " Is that all I" 
replied Dumoulin, " Be seated, sir;" and in 
saying so, he extinguished the lamp. " There 
is no occasion for light to show us how to talk ; 
it only produces inattention. — Well, what is 
your object]" — " Sir," cried the stranger, " the 
lesson of economy I have already received is 
enough. I shall always remain a scholar in 
respect to you. I shall endeavour to profit by 
the lesson I have received," and so withdrew in 
the best way he could in the dark. 


The earliest account we have of these cele- 
brated mineral springs, which have their source 
in the village of Buxton, in Derbyshire, is in a 
" Book of Simples," written by William Bulleyn, 
a physician and author of some repute, who 
was born at the Isle of Ely, in the early part of 
the reign of Henry VIII. 

The book in question is merely an enumera- 
tion of the articles of the Materia Medica, 
collected chiefly from the ancients. Under the 
head of water, the Baths of Buckstone are spo- 
d 2 


ken of as having " done many and sundry good 
cures, both to the sore and lame." 

Speaking of fruit, the same author gives addi- 
tional testimony that horticulture, at that period, 
was not in so low a state as some have repre- 
sented. He notices a delicious kind of pear, 
growing in the city of Norwich, called the 
Blackfriars' pear, thought to be the finest in 
England. He mentions cherries as very plenti- 
ful, particularly in Kent; and adds, that he has 
seen very good grapes growing in several parts 
of England. 

A curious account is given of a wild pea, 
growing spontaneously on the sea-coast. " Anno 
salutis 1555, in a place called Orford, in Suf- 
folk, between the haven and the mayne sea, 
whereas never plough came, nor natural earth 
was, but stones only, there did pease grow, 
whose rootes were more than three fadome long, 
and the coddes did grow upon clusters like the 
chats or keys of ashe-trees, bigger than fitches, 
and less than the field-peason, very sweete to 
eat upon, and served many poore people, dwel- 
ling there at hand, which els should have pe- 
rished for hunger, the scarcity of bread was so 

An odd mistake is also related concerning the 
use of the herb mercury, which Lord Wharton 
was accustomed to take medicinally in his broth, 


of an ignorant fellow, in the absence of the cook 
going to the apothecaries, instead of the gar- 
deners, and procuring the sublimate of mercury, 
which he boiled in his lordship's broth, and was 
very nearly destroying him by the blunder. 

In speaking of the ebony wood, he mentions 
certain superstitious uses to which beads made 
of it were put, being employed as charms for 
the cure of diseases. Under this head, he 
inveighs, with great warmth, against the sin of 
witchcraft, affirming it to be " more hurtful in 
this realm than either quartan, pox, or pesti- 
lence ;" lamenting, at the same time, that 
" damnable witches should be suffered to live 
unpunished, and so many blessed men burned." 

In another of Bulleyn's works, the " Book of 
Compounds," consisting of a miscellaneous for- 
mula of medicines for internal as well as exter- 
nal use, there is a very generous eulogy bestowed 
on the ladies and gentlemen who benevolently 
employed themselves in curing the diseases of 
their less fortunate neighbours, which we shall 
transcribe, in commemoration of such laudable, 
generous, and well-disposed designs : — " Many 
good men and women within this realme have 
divers and sundry medicines for the canker, 
(cancer) and do help their neighbours that be in 
peril and danger, which be not only poor and 
needy, having no money to spend in chirurgirie 


but some do well where no chirurgians be neere 
at hand.* In such cases, as I have sayd, many 
good gentlemen and ladyes have done no small 
pleasure to poore people : as that excellent 
knyght and worthy learned man, Syr Thomas 
Eliot, whose works be immortal; Sir Phillip 
Paris, of Cambridgeshire, whose cures deserve 
prayse; Sir William Gascoyne, of Yorkshire, 
that helped many sore eyen ; and the Lady Tay- 
lor, of Huntingdonshire; and the Lady Danel 
of Kent, had many precious medicines to com- 
fort the sight, and to heal wounds withal, and 
were well seene in herbs. The commonwealth 
had great want of them and theyr medicines ; 
which if they had come into my hands, they 
should not have been written on the backside 
of my booke. Among all other there was a 
knyght, a man of great worship, a godly hurt- 
less gentleman, which is departed this life ; his 
name is Sir Anthony Ileningham (of Hening- 
ham, Suffolk.) This gentleman learned a water 
to kill a canker of his own mother, &c." 

There is another of Dr. Bullyen's publications, 
which is, we believe, the last, as well as the 
most singular, entitled, "A Dialogue, both plea- 
sante and pietifull ; wherein is a goodlie Regi- 

* This philippic can have no reference, however pro- 
phetically it may speak, to the present time. 


ment against the Fever Pestilence ; with a Con- 
solation and Comfort against Death," 8vo. 1564. 
Dr. Bulleyn was another physician to Henry 
VIII. He died in 1576, and was buried in the 
same grave with his brother Richard, who died 
thirteen years before, in the church of Cripple- 
gate. He suffered a long and serious prosecu- 
tion for the supposed unskilful treatment of a 
person who died of a fever. The charge was 
preferred against him by the brother of his 
patient, who was Sir Thomas Hilton, Baron of 
Hilton. He was arraigned before the Duke of 
Norfolk, and the most unjustifiable means were 
used to procure his condemnation. He had, 
however, the good fortune to clear his own inno- 
cence, and to detect the malice of his prosecu- 
tor. — The following quartetto is engraved on his 

" Surfeyte, age, and sicknesses, are enemys to health, 
Medicine to mend the body, excell all worldly wealth ; 
Pisicke shall tlourishe, and in daunger will give cure, 
Till death unknit the lively knot, no longer to endure." 


Sir Thomas Browne says, (Religio Medici), 
" For my part I have ever believed, and do now 
know, that there are witches ; they that doubt 
of these do not only deny them, but spirits ; and 
are obliquely, and upon consequence, a sort, 


not of infidels but atheists. Those that, to con- 
fute their incredulity, desire to see apparitions, 
shall questionless never behold any, nor have 
the power to be so much as witches." Sir Tho- 
mas also thinks, " We do surely owe the dis- 
covery of many secrets to the discovery of good 
and bad angels :" And further, " I do think that 
many mysteries, ascribed to our own inventions, 
have been the courteous revelations of spirits." 
Lord Bacon, the reputed philosopher^ says, " the 
ointment that witches use is reported to be made 
of the fat of children, digged out of their graves; 
of the juices of smallage, wolfbane, and cinque- 
foil, mingled with the meal of fine wheat : but 
I suppose that the soporiferous medicines are 
likeliest to do it, which, are henbane, hemlock, 
mandrake, moonshade, tobacco, opium, saffron, 
poplar-leaves," &c. 


Medicine is practised in Japan by a kind of 
hermit called Jammabos. The people have the 
more confidence in their art, that they employ 
no natural methods of performing their cures, 
but a kind of sorcery. While the patient is 
giving a faithful account of what he feels, 
the Jammabo is occupied in tracing on paper 
certain characters, which have analogy with 
their temperaments and the disease by which 


they are afflicted. Next he places the memorial 
upon the altar of his favourite deity, and prac- 
tises certain mysterious ceremonies, which, in 
his opinion, possess the means of imparting 
to this paper healing powers; he then tears it. 
in pieces, and forms it into pills, of which the 
patient is to swallow a certain number every 
morning fasting. The use of these pills require, 
indeed, some preparation ; the patient is re- 
quired to drink a glass of river or spring water, 
and to be particularly careful, while so doing, 
to turn his face to the south or north, as circum- 
stances may require. 

This superstition has been equalled in this 
country. A physician wrote a prescription for 
a poor woman, and desired her to apply it to 
her breast. She returned in a few days, saying- 
she was much better, with the prescription tied 
round her neck with a piece of tape. 

In the palace of the Emperor Monomotopa, 
there is a place allotted for the reception of the 
bodies of criminals who have suffered capital 
punishments. They are suspended from the 
ceiling, and their fluids expressed from their 
bodies while still fresh. Of these humours a 
precious elixir is composed, by the use of which 
the emperor expects to prolong his life, and 
escape the effects of scrcery, 



Democritus affirmed that many diseases are 
capable of being cured by the sound of a flute 
properly played. M. Burrette, in a dissertation 
on the music of the ancients, to be found in the 
15th volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of 
Belles Lettres, mentions many diseases cured by 
this species of music ; among which he reckons 
quartan fevers, the plague, syncope, insanity, 
epilepsy, deafness, the bites of serpents ; and 
he cites, as vouchers for these cures, the autho- 
rity of many Greek and Roman authors of 
respectability. Marianus Capellus assures us, 
that fevers may be cured by appropriate songs ; 
and Asclepiades employed the sound of a 
trumpet as a remedy. The Cretan Taletas 
delivered the Lacedemonians from the plague 
by the sweetness of his lyre. Do not we learn 
from the holy scriptures, that David calmed 
the fury of Saul by the tone of his harp? Athe- 
naeus asserts, that the sound of the flute cures 
sciatica, with this addition, that the flute must 
be played in the Phrygian mode. Aulus Gel- 
lius, on the contrary, recommends a soft and 
plaintive mode, not one of vehemence, like the 
Phrygian. Coelius Aurelianus determines even 
the length to which this species of enchant- 
ment should be carried ; that is, till the fibres 


of the part begin to leap and palpitate, when 
the pain vanishes, quos cum saltum sumerent 
palpitando, discusso dolore, mitsscerent. 


An Emperor of China received, from an 
impostor, an elixir of which he exhorted him 
to drink, promising that it would confer immor- 
tality upon him. A mandarin present, after 
having in vain attempted to dissuade the em- 
peror from trusting to the promises of an 
empiric, seized the cup and drank off the 
liquor. The prince, enraged at his boldness, 
threatened to condemn him to instant death ; 
to which the other with perfect tranquillity re- 
plied, * sire, if this elixir really confers immor- 
tality, you will in vain attempt to put me to 
death; if it does not, can you be so unjust as 
to deprive me of life for so trifling a theft?" 
This remark calmed the rage of the emperor ; 
and the history adds, that the effect of the 
elixir was to put the mandarin's life in the 
utmost danger. 

Another Emperor of China, still more at- 
tached to life than the former, and infatuated 
with the secrets of the philosopher's stone, per- 
suaded himself that it was not impossible to 
discover an elixir that would Tender him im- 
mortal. This notion he communicated to his 


physician. The latter tried various plans to 
escape from the unreasonable caprice of the 
emperor: at length he hit upon a successful 
expedient. He told him, that the simples, 
requisite to compose this precious elixir, grew 
in some neighbouring islands, but that they 
must absolutely be culled by pure and innocent, 
hands, without which they would possess no 
virtue. He added, that it was necessary to 
send thither three hundred youths and maidens 
of unsullied manners and of tender age, yet. 
sufficiently robust to sustain the fatigues of the 
journey. The emperor approved of the project, 
and committed to the physician the conduct 
of the expedition. They arrived happily at 
Japan, where, instead of amusing themselves 
with the vain project of gathering plants, they 
occupied themselves with peopling an island, 
which was called Nipon. 

Burkes Travels in India. 

We find the following observation in a 
French work : — " What would be said of a 
physician who, for spitting of blood, should 
prescribe an emetic of four or five grains of 
ipecacuanha? His rashness would certainly 
expose him to the derision of his colleagues and 
the reproaches of the public. There is, how- 


ever, in the history of the Academy of Sciences, 
tor 1715, an observation of M. Rohalt, on the 
vomiting of blood, which this practitioner re- 
peatedly arrested by the administration of an 
emetic: such facts set at nought the reasoning 
of system." This affords a curious proof of the 
changes in medical opinion. There is no re- 
medy more in use, at present, in haemoptysis 
than ipecacuanha, and no practitioner, of expe- 
rience, would feel alarm in prescribing it. 

When Louis XIV. was at the point of death 
ut Calais, July, 1658, his life was saved by the 
exhibition of an emetic. Soon afterwards, Car- 
dinal Mazarin died in consequence of having 
taken one ; it was then said, that an emetic 
was indeed a potent remedy, having twice 
saved France. 


One melancholy consequence of that state 
of mind, which sometimes attacks men who 
rind themselves unable, by the force of reason, 
to subdue unruly appetites, is the mutilation of 
the rebellious members. Although such in- 
stances, happily, are not of frequent occurrence, 
they have been collected by physicians as 
proofs of the power to which a disturbed 
imagination may drive even a healthy man, 
determined to sacrifice nature to false notions 


of religion. This passage of the scripture, 
" There are some men who have made them- 
selves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of 
Heaven," being misunderstood by Origen, de- 
termined him to practice, according to the lat- 
ter, this precept, which is merely allegorical. 
Nor was he aware of the turpitude of his con- 
duct, until Demetrius, Bishop of Alexandria, 
caused him to be degraded, banished, and 
excommunicated by a general council. 

Most of those who, from motives not less 
absurd than cruel, have followed this example, 
nave been its victims. The Journal of Medi- 
cine for March, 1778, furnishes two remark- 
able instances. In 1771, a young lawyer, who 
performed this operation upon himself, perished 
in the course of a few hours ; the law punishes 
this description of suicide, as injurious to popu- 
lation. The parliament of Dijon, a few years 
ago, caused a man to be hanged, who had thus 
mutilated himself, to be revenged of his wife, 
who was extremely jealous. 

Among the Hottentots, it is the custom, on 
attaining the age of puberty, to remove one of 
the testicles. Kalb says, in his description of 
the Cape, that he saw this operation performed 
on a Hottentot eighteen years of age. These 
people imagine that this privation augments 
swiftness of foot. A circumstantial account 


of the mode of performing this operation, may 
be found in the author just quoted. 

Zacchary Pasqualigus, a Theatin of Verona, 
about the middle of the last century, composed 
a moral treatise on the subject of castration, 
which is still prized on account of the singu- 
larity of the subject and style. He justifies 
this barbarous mutilation, by the improvement 
it produces in the human voice, which, he says, 
is of more importance to the edification of the 
church, than the filthy instrument of generation, 
the source of so much sin and mischief. The 
Greeks, about the year 1400, first introduced, 
among other abuses, the custom of employing 
eunuchs in sacred music. 

Pope Gregory the Xllth having instituted a 
solemn procession and thanksgiving for the 
horrible massacre of St. Bartholomew, a Cap- 
tain Bressart, a gentleman of Anguir, and a 
protestant, who had escaped this general but- 
chery, was so enraged at hearing this, that he 
swore he would castrate every monk who fell 
into his hands, an oath which he kept but too 
punctually ; nor was he ashamed to wear a 
bandaleer, formed of these cruel and ridiculous 

The custom of castration is very ancient, as 
well aa extensive. In Egypt, it was the punish- 
ment of adultery. In Persia, Pietro de la Valle 


says, it was the punishment of robbery and 
other minor offences. In some countries, mo- 
thers mutilate their male children, in order to 
extinguish their posterity, for fear they should 
fall into poverty. In Italy, they so far abuse 
nature, as to extirpate the testicles for the sake 
of improving the voice. Even at present, all 
over Asia and Africa, jealousy prompts the 
rich to have, for guards to their women, 
eunuchs, who are completely deprived of the 
external tokens of virility. 

Instead of amputating the testicles, their 
growth is sometimes prevented by immersing 
the children in baths composed of certain herbs. 
This species of castration was termed attrition, 
and was less dangerous to life. 

In a book, entitled " Eunuchism Displayed," 
it is said, that eunuchs are made in three ways; 
by extirpation, by twisting the testicles, and by 
the internal use of hemlock. 

M. Dujardin has thrown much light on this 
subject, in his excellent history of surgery. The 
origin of castration is buried in the darkness of 
the most remote antiquity. He thinks, that 
some persons, who had become eunuchs by 
accident, first suggested the idea of making 
them artificially. He thinks this odious inven- 
tion originated in Asia, but among what.people 
is unknown. Ammianus Maroelin us -thinks this 


detestable mutilation was invented by Semira- 
mis, and supposes she adopted this expedient 
after the death of her husband Ninus; in order 
that those who approached her might have 
nothing in their voice or manner that should 
detect the usurpation, Ninias, her son, bribed 
one of her eunuchs to deprive her of life. — Hist. 
des Sciences Medicates. 


This celebrated apothecary first drew breath 
in London, April 16th, 1550. His father was 
an eminent goldsmith and banker in the city, 
and had an employment, of considerable value, 
in the jewel-office, under Queen Elizabeth. 

Anthony, after having been instructed in the 
rudiments of learning at home, was removed 
to Cambridge, about the year 1569, where he 
diligently applied himself to his studies ; and 
upon taking his degee, in arts, in 1574, he" 
engaged with ardour in the pursuit of chemical 
knowledge. It does not appear that, according 
to the custom of the time, he went abroad 
for improvement in these studies ; but, it is pro- 
bable, he continued at Cambridge till he was 
pretty far advanced in life ; when he came to 
London, and began to publish the result of his 
enquiries, which first appeared in a treatise,, 
concerning a panacea extracted from gold, 

VOL. III. £ 


printed at Hamburgh, in 1598, with which T 
and other remedies, he undertook the cure of 
various diseases ; but, being of the chemical 
sect, he did not apply to the College of Physi- 
cians, for their licence, and was summoned be- 
fore the president and censors, to answer for 
his illegal practice. Of this affair, the following 
account is given by Dr. Gcodall, which we 
insert, as a specimen of the arbitrary manner 
in which the college proceeded at, that time, 
against practising apothecaries :— 

" In the 42d of Queen Elizabeth, Francis Anthony, 
Master of Arts, in Cambridge, twenty-six years, and after- 
wards Doctor of Physic in our own Universities, appeared 
before the president and censors, confessing that he had 
practised physic in London for six monihs, and had cured 
twenty or more divers diseases, to whom he had given 
vomiting and purging physic; to others a diaphoretic 
medicine, prepared from gold and mercury; but, withal, 
acknowledged that he had no license to practice. He was 
examined in the several parts of physic, and found very 
weak and ignorant;* wherefore, he was interdicted prac- 
tice. About a month after, he was committed to the 
Compter prison, and fined 5l., propter illicitam prascin, 
in that he prescribed physic against the statutes and pri- 
vileges of the College; but within a fortnight or threu 
weeks he was, by a warrant from the lord-chief-justice, 
taken out of prison and restored to his liberty. Where- 
fore it was ordered, that the president and one of the 

•' * That is to say, he did not follow the rules of Galei< 
but-practised upon the new chemical principles. — Ed. 


tensors should wait upon the chief-justice, with a petition 
from the College, to request his favour in defending and 
preserving the College privileges; upon which, Anthony 
submits himself to the College's censure, and begs their 
favour. Wherefore, it was ordered, that he should forth- 
with pay to the treasurer of the College the 5/. due for his 
tine, which he promised to do, and was, likewise, inter- 
dicted practice. Not long after, he was again accused 
practising physic, which he confessed, wherefore, he was 
punished 5/. for practising against the statu'es of the Col- 
lege, and his own promise; but he refusing to pay it, was 
committed to prison, and fined 20/. About eight months 
after, order was given by the censors for prosecuting him at 
law, he having confessed three years' practice within the 
oily, and his prescribing medicines lately to one that died, 
and to another in great danger. After this, Anthony's wife 
petitioned the College that they would deal mercifully with 
her husband, and restore him to his liberty. This petition 
was rejected, it being now out of the College's power to set 
him at liberty, the suit depending being commenced in the 
queen's name as well as the college's. Wherefore, about 
two months after, Mrs. Anthony delivered a second peti- 
tion to the College, with so great importunity and tears, 
that partly on account of Anthony's poverty, &c. they 
granted the following warrant to the keeper of the prison.'' 

This warrant specifies they are willing to dis- 
charge ttteir part of Anthony's debt, so that it 
he nowise prejudicial to her majesty's part, 
which was 301. 

" Two years after Anthony's release from prison, Dr. 
Taylor, with two physicians more of the college, and 
some other persons, complained against him for pre- 
scribing physic to several patients, amongst which one 


died upon the use of his remedies ; another lost all his 
teeth ; a third fell into such violent vomitings and loose- 
ness, that the day after he died, and charged his death 
upon Anthony, who had said, that when all other remedies 
failed him, he used this as his last and extreme one ; 
which, in the nature of it, would either kill or cure. The 
president and censors gave order for his prosecution 
according to law. After which order, several fresh com- 
plaints were brought against him; as his prescribing his 
aurum potabile to a reverend divine, who, upon his death- 
bed complained that this medicine had killed him, he fall- 
ing, upon the use of it, into an incurable inflammation of 
the throat, &c. — GoodalPs Hist. Coll. Phys- p. 349, et seq. 


The ark of the Lord being taken by the 
Philistines, his hand was heavy upon them, and 
he afflicted them with a painful malady in the 
anus; " in the most secret parts of their bodies, 
whence the excrements issue." The interpre- 
ters are not, however, agreed concerning the 
proper meaning of the original word translated 
nnus, nor concerning the nature of the disease 
of the Philistines. Some think it was haemor- 
rhoids, others dysentery, others fistula ; in the 
78th Psalm, the last meaning appears to be 
indicated ; where it is said, " He smote his 
enemies in the hinder parts ; he put them to a 
perpetual reproach." The Philistines are also 
said to have made for themselves seats of skins, 
that they might sit more softly, on account of 


their infirmity. Herodotus appears to have 
known something of this malady ; but he has 
misunderstood it, and attributed it to a wrong 
cause. He says, that " the Scythians having 
plundered the temple of Ascalon, a celebrated 
city of the Philistines, the Goddess Derceto, 
othewise Venus, who was there worshipped, 
struck them with a disgraceful malady, which 
became hereditary among their posterity." Be 
that as it may, their priests and diviners advised 
the Philistines, in order to avert this infirmity, 
to make five golden figures of the anus, and 
place them near or upon the ark, and send the 
whole back ; which was accordingly done. 


The wife of an officer in the French guards 
had long complained of a painful enlargement 
of one of her breasts, which was considered to 
be cancer. Excision was advised, but to this 
she would never submit. One day she expe- 
rienced a severe shooting pain; and, at the 
same moment, her breast burst, and a spider 
of a monstrous size issued forth. The author of- 
the Journal Encyclopedique, who relates this 
story, adds, that the Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences, and the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, 
are occupied in endeavouring to explain this 

54 medicine and 

singular phenomenon. They have not yet dis- 
covered the cause of it, and they are likely to 
spend more time in the research than will ever 
be repaid by the result. 

In the Schola Salernitana, the plant called 
Chevrefeuille, chervil, is said to be a cure for 
the cancer. 

Oppositutn cancris tritum cum melle medetur. 

Doubtless, this is attributing more virtue to this 
herb than it ever did or ever will deserve. But 
the truth is, that we know no more of cancer 
than our predecessors. Every year, however, 
produces new pretenders to secrets, for the 
cure of this dreadful disease. Surgery may, 
indeed, remove the local malady ; but, if the 
constitution be affected, the patient either dies 
from the operation, or the disease reappears 
in some other place, and inevitably destroys its 

If the above be founded in truth, what rea- 
son could there be for imputing ignorance to 
the surgeons of Ann of Austria, the mother of 
Louis XIV., because they could not cure her of 
a diseased gland of the breast, which degene- 
rated into a cancer, of which she died three 
years after the first appearance of the disease ? 
it is singular, that when her disease exhaled a 
most insupportable stench, when she might be 

Medical men. 55 

said to carry death in her bosom, she paid as 
much attention to her toilet as when in perfect 
health, although covered with disgusting plais- 
ters, and obliged to have the putrid portions 
daily removed by the knife. Amid the horrors 
of this situation, she observed, " others putrify 
after death, but I am condemned to do so while 
yet alive." 


Physicians recommend an attention to diet, 
as one of the safest and most efficacious means 
of curing disease; they recommend attention 
to it even in health, and doubtless they are 
right. But do they not sometimes push the 
matteT too far ? Some have been known to reduce 
their patients to a state of incredible weakness, 
by almost interdicting nourishment, when that 
alone was required to re-establish their strength, 
and to dispell the remains of the disease by 
restoring contractility to the fibres and anima- 
tion of the fluids. The same reproach may be 
made to the chirurgeons, who put their wounded 
patients upon the most severe diet, where the 
disease is local, and the stomach requires a 
certain degree of stimulus to promote digestion. 
Is it not certain that many wounded men pe- 
rish by marasmus and consumption, because 
they are deprived of a due portion of nourish- 


ment? Might not some examples be produced, 
were this a proper place ? 

We somewhere read an assertion of a phy- 
sician, that, by means of diet, id six weeks 
he could convert a brave man into a poltroon. 
Prince Maurice, of Nassau, was so well con- 
vinced of the truth of this principle, that he 
always employed the English troops in some 
vigorous action, while, to use his own expres- 
sion, they still had a piece of beef in their 

Owen, the poet, has the following epigram 
respecting diet : — 

Si tardi capis esse, uteris oportet 

Vel medico medice, vel medico modice :' 

Sumpta cibus tanquan loedit medicina salutem ; 
At sumptus prodest ut medicina cibus. 

No people bear fasting better than the Gas- 
cons ; they accustom themselves to live on little, 
even when in health. A Gascon governor of a 
besieged place is said not to have surrendered 
till they had been absolutely without food for 
fifteen days. 

One physician paid dearly for having per- 
mitted his patient to eat heartily during a tem- 
porary absence, in consequence of which he 
died. Alexander the Great, after having car- 
ried the terror of his arms to the banks of the 
Ganges, was returning victorious to the city of 


Ecbatana, the capital of Media, when Hephes- 
tion, his clear friend, whom he loved nearly as 
well as himself, fell sick. He had an attack of 
fever, and was supposed to die in consequence 
of having imprudently indulged in too much 
food. The conqueror of Asia sent for his phy- 
sician, Glaucus, who had treated the patient, 
reproached him for having occasioned the death 
of his friend by neglect, and afterwards caused 
him to be hanged. 


The practice of vaccination, although warmly 
opposed by a few professional men in London, 
the most eminent of whom were Dr. Moseley, 
Dr. Rowley, and Mr. Birch, was adopted with 
great zeal in the metropolis, and spread rapidly 
over every quarter of the globe. In France it 
was welcomed, by Napoleon, as the angel of 
health; in Germany it was supported by a host 
of able operators, at the head of whom was Dr. 
De Carro, of Vienna ; in Italy it met with an 
advocate and promulgator of equal ability, Dr. 
Sacco, of Milan ; and what was more remark- 
able, the King of Spain sent his physician, Dr. 
Balmis, on a voyage to South America, ex- 
pressly for the purpose of diffusing this blessing. 
The medical men in the United States were 
almost unanimous in promoting vaccination ; 


and even in the East it overcame the prejudices 
of the Hindoos and Chinese. In Russia it was 
equally successful; and the mother of the pre- 
sent emperor, Alexander, was so delighted with 
the discovery, that she sent Dr. Jenner a very 
valuable diamond-ring, accompanied by a letter. 


Aretaeus Cappedox relates the case of a 
blacksmith, who was perfectly sensible while 
employed in his shop and handling his tools; 
but if it became necessary for him to leave, on 
calls of business, he began to sigh and groan 
as soon as he quitted the instruments of his 
trade. On going abroad he hung his head ; 
and, as soon as he lost sight of his shop, he 
became so completely delirious that he was 
obliged to be carried home by force, when the 
sight of his shop and his tools never failed to 
recal him to his senses. 

The Greek christians, who are prone to every 
kind of superstition, consider the delirium of 
fever as a true possession of the devil; and 
when they perceive any one labouring under 
delirium, instead of administering the proper 
remedies, they send for the papas or priests, 
who, by abundance of prayers, and deluges of 
holy water, seriously exorcise the patient. 
. The husband o a young lady, who had mar- 

medical mi;n. 59 

vied a man advanced in life, (by whom she had 
no children) was attacked by fever; he became 
violently delirious, and incessantly demanded 
that his wife should come to bed to him. After 
repeated refusals, she was prevailed upon to 
lie down beside him, in hopes that her compli- 
ance might tend to calm his frenzy. The hus- 
band was no sooner sensible of the presence of 
his spouse, than he embraced her with trans- 
port. He died in the course of the day ; but 
what is extraordinary, the lady found herself 
pregnant, and lay in precisely at the end of 
nine months. So that the last caresses of the 
husband seemed like the death of the phoenix, 
which is said to be reproduced from the midst 
of its ashes. 

The Ephemerides Germanicce contain the case 
of a man, who, in the delirium of malignant 
fever, opened his navel ; and gradually drew 
forth, through the aperture, the whole of his 
intestines. When the attendants endeavoured 
to dissuade him, he begged they would not 
prevent him from drawing the worms out of his 
body. He had taken it into his head that his 
belly was a mine of worms. This shocking and 
peculiar delirium terminated, as may readily be 
supposed, in death. What tortures would not 
such an operation, performed upon a sane per- 
son, have occasioned. 



This gentleman was one of the many physi- 
cians, who, in this country, have enjoyed a short- 
lived reputation, acquired by methods unknown 
to any but themselves. The earliest of his 
practice was among men of eminence, Mr. Pope 
and others ; who, deceived by his confidence, 
and a certain contempt with which he ever 
spoke of the rest of his profession, as being 
bigotted to theories and systems, looked upon 
him as a man of an inventive genius, who had 
reduced the art of healing to an epitome. The 
fact was, that, affecting to be a free-thinker in 
his faculty, he set at nought the discoveries and 
improvements of others, and treated with ridi- 
cule that practice which he did not understand. 
He was an everlasting prater on politics and 
criticism, and saw so deep into the councils of 
the King of Prussia, that he could assign the 
motives of all his actions, during the last war 
in which he was engaged. At taverns, in cof- 
fee-houses, at the cyder-cellar in Maiden-lane, 
he was frequently to be found holding forth on 
these subjects without interruption, in a tone of 
voice which, Mr. Garrick would say, was like 
the buzz of an humble-bee in a hall-window. 
This man enjoyed the favour of Lord Melcombe; 
and, what was of greater benefit to him, an 


apartment in his house, with a protection from 
arrest, founded on the privilege which the law 
grants, not only to peers, but to the lowest of 
their menial servants. 

Quin once told me a story of this person ; 
he observed a man in a dark corner leaning his 
forehead on the table, and every now and then 
sending forth a sigh which seemed to come from 
his heart. Moved with compassion, he went up 
to him, and enquiring the cause of his grief, was 
told by him, that his name was Thompson ; 
that he was a physician rising into practice, but 
that, for the want of fifty pounds, his chariot 
could not go abroad the next day, and his pa- 
tients must remain unvisited. Quin bid him 
be comforted, and stepping to his lodgings in 
Bedford-street, returned with a bank-note for 
that sum, which he told Thompson he would 
not expect, till he was able to repay it. The 
other answered, that a month was as long as he 
wished to retain it ; but Quin told him that he 
could spare it for three, ov even for six months, 
and took his leave. Six months elapsed, and 
no apology made for non-payment of the money. 
Quin in a civil letter reminded Thompson of the 
terms on which it was lent; but receiving no 
answer to that and others that he wrote, he was 
obliged to send him one by his attorney, whic!> 
produced a notification from the Duke of New- 


castle's office, that the name of Dr. Thompson 
was there entered as a person privileged from 
arrests, and that it would be at Mr. Quin's 
peril if he proceeded to violate that protection 
which he claimed, and the law granted him. 
Being thus prohibited from the restraint of his 
person, Quin was obliged to wait the repay- 
ment of his money, which at the expiration of 
some months he received, but without the least 
acknowledgment of his kindness in lending it. 

This was a man whom Whitehead, in the 
simplicity of his. heart, held in such estimation, 
that he has been seen for hours together, lis- 
tening with lips unclosed, to the torrents of 
nonsense he was pouring fourth. He ad- 
dressed an epistle to him, wherein he celebrates 
his medical and moral qualities, and makes 
the number of persons daily restored by him to 
health, equal to those who were sent to their 
long homes by Wilmot, and other eminent 
physicians, his rivals and contemporaries. 

Notwithstanding the advantages with which 
he set out, and the extravagant encomiums of 
him and his practice by Fielding and others, 
Thompson sunk into contempt and obscurity. 
Like Paracelsus, he performed a few cures, that 
neither himself nor any others were ever able 
to account for ; and in a case of surgery he was 
once known, by dint of mere obstinacy, to have 


saved a limb. A young gentleman, an officer, 
being on service in Germany, and at the head of 
a skirmishing party on horseback, received a 
wound with a sabre, that separated the tendons 
and ligaments which connect the foot with the 
leg. At a consultation on his case of two of 
the most eminent surgeons, Thompson, being 
the family physician, was called to assist, who, 
in opposition to their opinions that an amputa- 
tion was inevitable, swore that his friend should 
not undergo it. The operation was deferred ; 
and, by the help of the Malvern waters, the 
patient recovered such an use of the whole 
limb, as enabled him to walk with scarce any 
variation of his accustomed gait. 

Boswell's Life of Johnson. 


Charles Delorme, a physician of Paris, who 
died at Moulins, in 1678, at the age of 94 
years, published, in 1608, a book, in quarto, 
entitled, " Laureae Apollinares;" it is a collec- 
tion of thesis, of which he is the author, and 
which, for the most part, treat on singular and 
interesting subjects. One among, the rest 
examines, " Whether animals and fools can be 
Cured by the same remedies ?" and he concludes 
in the affirmative. 

In 1736, at an assembly of the University of 


Bologna, a Miss Laura Bussy, aged 32 years, 
and admitted of the faculty, pronounced a latin 
discourse, and argued afterwards, with the 
applause of an illustrious and numerous assem- 
bly, on anatomy, and, in particular, on ossifi- 
cation. The cardinal legate, the archbishop, 
the holy standard-bearer, the vice legate, &c. 
were present. 


Physicians in China never write prescriptions, 
but commonly administer their own medicines : 
a boy carrying after them a cabinet with five 
drawers, each divided into more than forty little 
squares, and all of them furnished with medi- 
cines ready prepared. "When they have felt 
the pulse, they make up two compositions ; one 
to be taken on the spot, the other afterwards. 
Their medicines are only simples ; in the uses 
of which, and in the knowledge of the pulse, 
their whole art consists. Blood-letting is very 
rarely practised among them ; and the use of 
clysters was not known till they learned it frou. 
tne Portuguese at Macao, which they therefore 
call " the remedy of barbarians." The circula- 
tion of the blood is said to have been known 
to them from time immemorial ; but, from their 
aversion to dissection, and their ignorance of 
anatomy, they have made »o improvements. 


The profession is chiefly handed down from 
father to son, though they have good ancient 
books of the art ; extracts from which may be 
seen in Du Halde. Their fees are very mode- 
rate, but they never repeat their visits unless 
sent for ; so that the patient is at liberty to 
change his physician. 


A striking instance of the zeal which Dr. Bail- 
lie felt for the promotion of medical knowledge, 
was afforded by the present which, in Decem- 
ber, 1818, he made to the Royal College of 
Physicians of his extensive and valuable collec- 
tion of anatomical preparations, together with 
the sum of 3001. , which he afterwards increased 
to 600Z., for the purpose of keeping them in 
order. It is remarkable that three individuals 
so closely connected — Dr. Hunter; his brother, 
Mr. John Hunter ; and their nephew, Dr. Bail- 
lie — should each have left to his country a 
noble memorial of his science and patriotism. 
Jn the College of Glasgow may be seen the 
magnificent museum of Dr. Hunter: the Col- 
lege of Surgeons possesses the collection made 
by Mr. Hunter, which is more like the result of 
the labours of many individuals, successively 
enjoying royal patronage or national support, 
than that of the unaided efforts of a private 



surgeon; and, lastly, Dr. Baillie gave to the 
College of Physicians at least a foundation for 
a museum of morbid anatomy. If the present 
should have the effect, which there can be no 
doubt Dr. Baillie expected, of exciting an 
increased attention from that learned body to 
anatomy, and especially to morbid anatomy, 
the profession, and society .at large, will owe 
to him lasting obligations. The sense which the 
College of Physicians entertained at the time, 
of the value and importance of the donation, 
was expressed in the following resolution, with 
which the president and the other officers of 
the College waited upon Dr. Baillie, and pre- 
sented it to him in person : — 

" Resolved, 
" That the thanks of the Royal College of Physicians 
be conveyed to Dr. Baillie, for the very extensive and 
valuable collection of anatomical preparations which he 
has presented to the College, and for his liberal donation 
to defray the expense of preserving the same; for which 
most useful and munificent present the College will ever 
hold Dr. Baillie in grateful and honorable remembrance." 

To the donation of 600Z. the College of Phy- 
sicians added 6001. more, for the same purpose ; 
and this sum is called " The Baillie Fund." 

He also bequeathed by his will three hundred 
pounds to the College of Physicians, and all his 
medical, surgical, and anatomical books, toge- 


ther with all the copper-plates belonging to his 
" Illustrations of Morbid Anatomy," as well 
as a number of little curiosities, among which 
is the gold-headed cane of the celebrated Dr. 
RadclifTe. In case of the death of his son, 
William Hunter Baillie, without issue, he also 
left to the college a further bequest of four 
thousand pounds. He directed his two Intro- 
ductory Lectures to his Courses of Morbid 
Anatomy, his Lectures upon the Nervous Sys- 
tem, delivered before the College of Physicians, 
and a short Account of his Medical Practice, 
to be printed, but not published; remarking 
that, though not sufficiently important for pub- 
lication, they may yet contain matter too useful 
to be altogether lost. 


Andrew Rudiger, a physician of Leipsic, 
when at college, made an anagram of his name 
in Latin : he found in Andreas Rudigerus ex- 
actly these words — " arare rus Dei dignus," 
that is to say, " worthy of cultivating the field 
of God." He immediately concluded that his 
vocation was for the church, and he began to 
study theology. In a short time after this rare 
discovery, he became preceptor to the children 
of Thomasius. This learned man told him one 
day, that he thought he would do better by 
f 2 


turning his attention to physic. Rudiger con- 
fessed himself to have more taste and inclina- 
tion for that science; but, having regarded the 
anagram of his name as a divine invocation, he 
had not dared to neglect it. " How silly you 
are," said Thomasius, " the anagram of your 
name, in truth, calls you to physic. — Rus Dei, 
is not that the church-yard? and who cultivates 
it better than the physicians?" Rudiger could 
not resist this argument, and so turned physician. 


Professor of Midwifery at Edinburgh. 


Hie jacet 

Qui Venerem sine Lucina 

Lucinam sine Venere 


Filios post mille 

Reipublicse datos 

Sine Liberia decessitj 

Bella inter intestina 

Forti manu 

Sed sine Marte, 

Patriae Liberatoris nomen 

Adeptus est. 

Anno set. 57, jam juvenem, 


Abi, Viator, et luge. 



Here lies 

A most extraordinary man: 

He saved the lives of thousands, 

Though he was a physician; 

And took the greatest liberties with the chastest 

matrons without offending themselves; 


What is more surprising, 

Their husbands. 

Mothers and Daughters wept his death; 

The former from gratitude, 

The latter from expectation : 

He died, alas ! of an apoplexy. 

Cupid ! 

You gave him no assistance; 

And, by the omission, proved yourself 

A God, as ungrateful as blind: 

For this great man's life was spent 

in preventing 

Love's labour from being lost. 


Cy git, un horn me a mainte femme, 
Qui tata souvent pas le pouls, 
Et bon repos soit a son ame, 
N'a fait acun mari jaloux, 
Un coup si rude, et si severe, 
Faite tout le beaux sex gemir, 
En peusent au passe, la mere, 
Et la Poucelle a l'avenir. 




Oa account of the singularity of this case, 
and the unfrequency of the operation which 
was performed in it, we are inclined to lay the 
following particulars before our readers. 

" L. F. Clout, a paper-stainer, was admitted into the 
Hospital * La PilW on the 19th of August, 1823, on ac- 
count of a scirrhous ulceration of the right parotid gland. 
This man was aged forty-seven years, of an apparently 
good constitution, and of a sanguineo-nervous tempera- 
ment. The disease had commenced eight years before ; 
but, from being long indolent, and comparatively small, it 
had rapidly increased, and become the seat of lancinating 
pains ; it had also lost its mobility. On admission into the 
hospital, this cancerous tumour possessed a very consider- 
able elevation. At its superior margin it raised the lobe of 
the ear, and appeared to involve the cartilaginous portion 
of the auditory canal. It extended downwards more than 
an inch from the angle of the jaw; backwards it adhered 
to the sterno-mastoid muscle, and its anterior portion 
covered a great portion of the masseter. It was ulcerated 
in two situations, and had but little motion. There was no 
appearance of cancerous cachexia. The patient desired 
an operation, and M. Beclard, of the hospital La Pitie, 
performed it very skilfully. 

" The extirpated tumour presented a scirrhous texture, 
mixed with a small portion of tuberculous matter. It was 
impossible to distinguish the structure proper to the gland 

" Three months after the operation, the wound was 
closed, unless near the ear, where it had assumed a charac- 
ter denoting a return of the cancer. The patient was still 


maniacal, and seemed affected with a chronic inflammation 
of the membranes of the brain. He died three months and 
three weeks after the operation. 

•'•' On dissection, the external carotid artery was observed 
to terminate in cellular tissue resulting from the cicatriza- 
tion of the wound. There appeared no vestige of the 
parotid. The internal jugular vein was obliterated at the 
same height, and seemed to commence lower down by 
communicating with the superficial branches. The cor- 
respondent lateral sinus was not obliterated. Some pus 
was found in the meatus auditorius externus. The mem- 
brane of the tympanum was sound. There was a marked 
injection of the pia mater, and of the choroid plexus. A 
serosity was found in the ventricles., suspending particles 
similar to those deposited by some red comes. — Archives 
Generates, Jan. 1824. 

borde's account of ale, &c. 

" Natural ale, which is drink for an English- 
man, is, that it is made of malt and water, and 
yest, barme, or godsgood ; and they who put 
any thing more into it, sophisticate it. This 
should not be drunk under five days old." 

Beer, he tells us, is made of malt, hops, and 
water; " and is natural drink for a Dutchman, 
and of late is much used in England, to the 
detriment of many Englishmen." 

Speaking of wykle beastes' fleshe, he says, 
" I have gone rounde about Chrystendome, and 
overthwarte Chrystendome, and a thousand or 
two myles out of Chrystendome, yet there is 
not so much pleasure for harte and hynde, 


bucke and doe, and for roebucke and doe, as 
in Englande ; and although the fleshe be dis- 
praysed in physicke, I praye God to send me 
part of the flesh to eat, physicke notwithstand- 

Under the heads of roots, herbs, and fruits, 
he mentions most of those in common use at this 
day, notwithstanding the prevailing notion of 
the low state of gardening among us at that 
period.* The title of the book, which, it would 
appear, was drawn up at Montpellier, renders 
indeed his evidence somewhat doubtful; though 
it sufficiently appears, from the contents, to 
have been in general designed for the particular 
use of his countrymen. As potatoes are not 
mentioned among the articles of vegetable diet, 
in all probability they were but just then intro- 
duced, and not commonly known. 

Andrew Borde was as much remarkable for 
the versatility of his talent as for the eccentricity 
of his character. He possessed, it would ap- 
pear, the ne plus ultra of the cacoethes scribendi, 

* Sir Thomas Eylot, in his " Castle of Health," enu- 
merates the same. Surely Queen Katharine need not 
have sent to Holland for a salad, when lettuce, endive, suc- 
cory, beet, sorrel, and onion grew in England. It is true, 
she came over much earlier than the time these authors 
wrote, but these articles are mentioned as quite common 
;<nd of familiar use. 


invito, Minerva. He is said to have written a 
Book of Prognostics ; and another of Urines. 
But the most singular circumstance, for a man 
of his character, is his being the publisher of a 
famous jest-book, called, " The merry Tales of 
the Mad Men of Gotham ;" and likewise of 
" The History of the Miller of Abingdon and 
the Cambridge scholars," the same with that 
related by Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales. 
These publications, certainly, agree better with 
the Bishop's account of his conduct, than with 
his Carthusian mortifications : his fame, in this 
department, has survived that in the medical 
art, and the appellation of ' Merry- Andrew ' 
still recalls the remembrance of this author, and 
will continue to do so as long as the poor shall 
be allowed to have the amusement of a fair and 
its accompanying shows. 

He left behind him, in manuscript, a kind of 
Tour of Europe, giving the distances, from 
place to place, and describing the most remark- 
able objects on the road. 


Was born at Oxford, in the year 1492, and 
educated at the school near Magdalen Col- 
lege. He was incorporated doctor of physic, 
towards the latter end of 1525. He became 
eminent in his profession about Oxford, and 


afterwards in London ; was chosen a member 
of the London College of Physicians, and sub- 
sequently, physician to Henry VIII. He died 
Oct. 5, 1555, and was buried in St. Alban's 
church-yard, London. 

Dr. Wotton rendered himself eminent by a 
book on natural history, entitled " Be Diffe- 
rentiis Animalibum," lib. x. printed at Paris, 
1552. He appears to have been the first of our 
English physicians, who particularly devoted 
himself to this branch of study. 

The learned Gessner, in the preface to his 
" Historia Avivm," has given the following 
encomiastic opinion of the above work : — 

" Edoardus Wotton, Anglus, Nuper de animalium dif- 
ferentiis libros decern edidit; in quibus, etiamsi suarum 
observationum quod ad historiam nihil adferat, neque 
novi aliquid doceat, laude tamen et lectione dignus est, 
quod pleraque veterum de animalibus scripta ita diges- 
serit, ac inter se conciliarit, ut ab uno fere authore 
profecta videantur omnia; stylo satis aequabili et puro- 
scholiis etiam ac emendationibus utilissimis adjectis. 
et quod priusquam ad explicandas singulorum naturas 
accederet, quae communia et in genere dici poterant, 
doctissime exposuerit." 

This account, although made out by a friendly 
hand, is not materially different from the less 
favourable sentence of Haller, who says of the 
work : — " Ab eruditione magis, quam ab ipsa- 
rum cognitioue commendatur." — Boerk. Meth. 


Stud. Med. — and, " Sine ordine omnia, fere 
colleetitia ex veteribus, et etiam potissimum ex 
Aristotele." — Biblioth. Med. 

jenner's public reward. 

Dr. Jenner had bestowed on his country and 
on the world so inestimable a good, that nothing 
approaching its value could be returned. It was 
evident, that to him mankind must for ever 
remain insolvent. Yet, to obtain even a com- 
pensation for the expenses which he had in- 
curred, it was indispensable that he should 
present to the House of Commons a petition, 
couched in certain prescribed terms of solici- 
tation. On the 17th of March, 1802, Dr. Jen- 
ner's petition was presented. The prime-minis- 
ter favoured the application with every re- 
quisite official aid. He communicated to the 
house, that he had taken the king's pleasure 
upon the contents of the petition, and that his 
majesty recommended it strongly to the consi- 
deration of Parliament. The business was then 
referred to a committee, of which Admiral 
Berkeley was appointed chairman. 

After a very patient investigation and deli- 
beration, the committee drew up a report, ex- 
pressed in as favourable terms towards Dr. 
Jenner as the caution and formality of parlia- 
mentary language would permit; which was 


presented to the house on the 6th of May, 1802. 
On the 2d of June, the house having formed 
itself into a committee of supply, the subject 
was taken into consideration. 

Admiral Berkeley dwelt on the clearness of 
the proofs which had been adduced of the great 
importance of vaccination, and, while he allowed 
that the sum was insufficient, and that he would 
support any proposition that might be made for 
substituting one of larger amount, moved that 
1 0,000/. should be granted by parliament to Dr. 

Sir Henry Mildmay thought the sum pro- 
posed by no means adequate. The conduct of 
Dr. Jenner had, in his opinion, been most li- 
beral. There was ample testimony that if he 
had locked up the secret in his own breast he 
might easily have realised 100,000/. He moved 
as an amendment to make the grant 20,000/. 

The house then divided upon the original mo- 
tion for granting 10,000/.; which was carried 
by the small majority of three; all those who 
approved of the amendment, voting of course in 
the minority. 

In 1806, when Lord Henry Petty (now Mar- 
quis of Lansdown) became Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, he determined to bring the subject 
of vaccination again before the House of Comr 
mons. After a short conversation, in which 


Mr. Mathew, Mr. Wilberforce, Mr. Windham, 
Mr. Barker, Mr. W. Smith, and Mr. Paul parti- 
cipated, and which turned principally on the 
best mode of accomplishing the object in view, 
Lord Henry Petty's motion was agreed to, with- 
out one dissenting voice. 

On the 29th of July, 1807, the House of Com- 
mons being in a committee of supply, the Right 
Hon. Spencer Perceval, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, called the attention of the Commit- 
tee to the report of the College of Physicians, 
and to the immense advantages of vaccination 
which that report developed. Were they to pro- 
portion the reward to the value of the discovery, 
he knew not where they ought to stop; but 
convinced as he was that the committee would 
regard his proposal as an act of justice rather 
than of liberality, he would move that there 
should be granted to Dr. Jenner, as a reward 
for his matchless discovery, an additional sum 
of 10,000/. 

The motion was opposed by Mr. Shaw Le- 
fevre, and supported by Lord Henry Petty, 
General Tarleton, Mr. Sturges Bourne, and Mr. 
Hawkins Browne. — Mr. Edward Morris moved 
as an amendment, to grant Dr. Jenner 20,000/. 
instead of 10,000/., to mark the sense which 
Parliament entertained of his merits, and to 
place him in a state of independence. 


Mr. Whitbread, Mr. Fuller, Mr. Baring, 
Admiral Pole, and Mr. George Rose, junior, 
all spoke in favour of the amendment. At 
length the house divided upon the question that 
20,OOOJ. should be granted to Dr. Jenner; 
sixty votes were in favour of that sum, and for- 
ty-seven against it. Thus the amendment was 
carried by a majority of thirteen. 

apothecaries' act. 

It is not a little amusing to see how the 
scale of liberality, as to an introduction into 
the three medical corporations of London, gra- 
dually contracts as it descends. 

The physicians, who are supposed to be the 
highest in rank, require only a certificate of two 
years' residence at a regularly-constituted uni- 
versity, in any country whatever, before the 
party takes his degree therein ; and three exa- 
minations carried on in the learned language of 

The surgeons, a degree lower, require a cer- 
tificate of five years' previous attention to the 
study, a twelvemonth's attendance upon the 
London hospitals and lecturers, that is to say, 
in other words, the expenditure of about one 
hundred guineas amongst the principals of the 
college ; and an examination in the vulgar 


The apothecaries, still lower in rank, now 
require five years' apprenticeship, that is to say, 
a good premium and five years' service to one 
of the fraternity, six months' attendance upon 
the London hospitals and lecturers, and an 
examination in the vulgar tongue, not only in 
pharmacy, but, according to the construction 
which they put upon the act, in medicine, 
anatomy, and botany. 

Surely it might have been left to the conve- 
nience of the party, either to serve an appren- 
ticeship like other tradesmen, or to qualify him- 
self for practice by an attendance upon the 
London hospitals and lecturers for some certain 
period, until he might be supposed, with mode- 
rate attention, to have acquired a portion of 
knowledge equal to what is usually acquired, by 
an apprenticeship. 

How distressing must it be, when a person, 
having served an apprenticeship in the country, 
has an opportunity, by the death of his master, 
just at the expiration of his term of servitude, 
to succeed him ; yet he is now obliged to come 
up to London, for at least six, or perhaps ten 
months, to render himself legally qualified to 
succeed him ; and, in the mean time, a stranger 
settles in the place, and takes away a consider- 
able portion of that business which the party 


had always looked up to as his own, and paid 
a considerable premium in order to obtain. — S. 


Like every other teacher who is master of 
his subject, John Hunter began with the most 
simple forms appertaining to his science. So 
far from resorting to the organic molecules of 
the French philosopher, he conceived that life 
may exist without organization, or without any 
that can be discovered. 'I his he illustrated by the 
property of the unimpregnated part of an egg, 
which has a power of self-preservation; that such 
power arises from life, he proves by killing it ; af- 
ter which it becomes putrid as soon as any other 
animal substance, exposed to the same degree 
of heat. This leads him to the vitality of the 
blood, a proposition we should conceive hardly 
doubtful, nor ever questioned, till Mr. Hunter 
shewed the necessity of closely watching all its 
actions ; demonstrating that they exist only 
(hiring life; and that, in every healthy process, 
they are directed to purposes the most impor- 
tant' to the health and growth of the animal. 
This fluid, like the solid parts of the iWing 
body, being only affected by stimuli and sym- 
pathy, the effects of each in every part, and 
under every condition of health and disease, 


were traced with the minutest accuracy. This 
led to the subject of inflammation, the founda- 
tion of all pathology. Happily all this, with 
various accidents under which it occurs, as 
applicable to the pathology of surgery, is given 
to the world in his own language; and if it 
requires patience and application to understand 
it, this only proves that, after anatomy, it should 
make the early part of medical study, as Euclid 
and Locke are of a more general education. 

His lectures were much more comprehensive, 
containing the whole of practical surgery, with 
as much of physiology as was necessary for 
comprehending the science, and connecting it 
with the rules of the art. Symptoms and prog- 
nosis were minutely dwelt upon, and sympathy, 
in all its varieties. After the consideration of 
every local disease, or accident, the various pro- 
visions made for restoration, and the conse- 
quence when these prove insufficient, with the 
means of relief by art, were pointed out by the 
relation of cases, the demonstration of prepara- 
tions, and the fairest inductions from the esta- 
blished laws of economy. Having traced local 
diseases, in all the variously-formed parts, from 
the generally-fluid blood to soft but solid parts, 
and to the bones, their effects on the whole 
system was next described. To these suc- 
ceeded disease's, which, from certain pecu- 



liarities, were called specific, particularly those 
confounded under the general term of cancer, 
the morbid poisons, and diseases of the skin. 
It should be remembered, that in all his lec- 
tures, he never professed to introduce compa- 
rative anatomy, excepting to illustrate some 
disease in the human subject. 

Adams's Life of John Hunter. 


In 1670, it appears, that in England it was 
then becoming customary for physicians to 
make their visits in a carriage, and that they 
then began to expect a double fee, viz. two 
angels,* " For," says the author of *. Lex 
Talionis,' " there must now be a little coach 
and two horses ; and, being thus attended, half 
a piece, their usual fee, is but ill-taken, and 
popped into their left pocket, and, possibly, may 
cause the patient to send for his worship twice 
before he will come again to the hazard of ano- 
ther angel." 

Before this, physicians of much practice used 
to visit their patients on horseback, riding, how- 

* The angel of gold was an ancient gold-coin, of the 
value of ten shillings; so that, after having been driven 
from circulation by the half-guinea, it has lately been re- 
vived under the denomination of a half-sovereign. 


ever, sideways, on foot-clolhs, like females. 
Dr. Simeon Fox and Dr. Argent are said to 
have been the last presidents of the College 
who visited their patients in this manner. 


Fixing the term of his historical researches 
at the end of the reign of Frederick II. in 1588, 
Professor J. D. Herbolt, in his Archives for 
Lagivendenskabens Historie I. Danmark, has 
divided his subject into seven parts, namely, 
— 1. General history of medicine in Denmark; 
— 2. Studies of this science at the University 
of Copenhagen ;— 3. Medical employments;— 
4. History and studies of surgery ;— 5. Phar- 
macy;— 6. Medical institutions and sanatary 
police.;— lastly, 7. Medical literature— a me- 
moir, as an apology for the history of medicine, 
in the north of Europe, by Professor P. E. Mid- 
ler, is placed at the head of the above curious 
work. Not much relative to medicine is to be 
learned from it, but many interesting facts are 
related; for instance, that at that early period 
the kings of the north touched for the evil, as 
was also done some centuries after by the 
Kings of England and France. There is still 
extant a peculiar treatise by J. Gislescn, on the 
ancient medicine of the north, under the title of 
" Testamen Histor. de Medicina vcierum se P l< «- 

G 2. 


trionalium," partes 4, 1779—82. M. Herbolt 
dates the origin of the study of medicine in 
Denmark as posterior to the reformation of 
religion, when the quarrels of divines, having 
subsided, gave to the literati and to govern- 
ments an opportunity of fixing their attention 
upon objects of more direct utility. It is since 
the kings were named Christian, that royal 
physicians began to be recognised. The phy- 
sician of Christian III., Jacques Bonding, has 
left a report remarkable for the time, that is, 
for the middle of the sixteenth century. The title 
of city-physician (stadphysicus) in Copenhagen 
was only known at Copenhagen in the 17th 
century. The barbers in Denmark, as in other 
states, were the first surgeons ; their Danish 
name, badskere, may probably be derived from 
bad, a bath ; so that the bath-keepers might 
also have been the first to practice surgery. 
In contagious diseases, which at that time were 
but too frequent, they enforced the police upon 
the sick; and, in time of war, they accompanied 
the armies as surgeons by land and sea. M. 
Herbolt has published the statutes of the corpo- 
ration of the master-barbers of Copenhagen ; 
dated 1577. This establishment, however, was 
not continued. Again, in 1546, there was only 
one pharmacy in all Denmark and Norway; 
and South Jutland had one only in 1577. The 


first royal ordonnance, relative to the hospitals, 
dated 1537, forms part of an ecclesiastical 
regulation. On these subjects Bartholin's work, 
" De Medicina Danorum," may be consulted. 
A bibliographical notice of the works relating 
to medicine published since 1478, and car- 
ried up to 1588, closes this treatise. For this 
part the author might have availed himself 
of a work, by Mangor, printed in a Danish 
periodical collection, under the title of "Bibli- 
otheca Danorum Medica." 


Messrs. Desbarreaux and Delben dining toge- 
gether one day, the first presented the other 
with a dish, which he apologized for refusing, 
because he found it was difficult of digestion. 
" You are then," said M. Desbarreaux to him, 
" one of those fools who amuse themselves with 

M. Astruc published, in 1714, a tract, in 
octavo, upon digestion ; in which he refutes 
the theory of trituration, and proposes another, 
which was controverted by Hercquet and Pit- 
cairn. The latter, speaking of Astruc, uses 
the following polite expression : — " Credo As- 
truccium nunquam cacasse." 

A parasite, on leaving a table where he had 
partaken of a good dinner, spoke very disre- 


spectfully of his entertainer. He might, at least, 
have waited till digestion was finished, said 
some one. This was probably the same person 
of whom it was observed, that he never opened 
his mouth but at the expence of another. 


Dr. William Lambe stated, in a work he 
published, called " An Enquiry into the Origin. 
Symptoms, and Cure of Constitutional Dis- 
eases," that the drinking of the lambent stream, 
vulgarly called water, was the sole cause of man 
not arriving at any decent state of longevity. 
The deleterious matter with which pure water 
is accompanied, he designates by the name of 
the septic poison, which, resembling arseni- 
cated manganese, being taken into the body, 
acts in this dreadful manner : " Is not (he says) 
this the very demon, which, for so many ages, 
has tortured mankind; and which, usurping 
the sensorium, has corrupted, under a thousand 
forms, both the mind and body ? the evil spirit 
which has augmented the wants of man, while 
it has diminished his enjoyments? which has 
exasperated the passions, inflamed the appe- 
tites, benumbed the senses, and enfeebled the 
understanding? which has converted his fine 
form into a storehouse of diseases ; has blasted 
the flower of his offspring, and has brought 


even tiie strongest of his name to an untimely 
grave?" This is a war upon water, and the 
mode he proposes to rectify the inconvenience 
of being short-lived, is to have all water dis- 
tilled. The dropsy of punch-drinkers he attri- 
butes to the water, and not to the alcohol ; the 
beauty of those Lancashire and Irish women, 
whose complexions are the indexes of health, 
he attributes to the potatoes and buttermilk. 


Those to whom this subject is new, may form 
some notion of the ardent zeal of some votaries 
of medical science, and may be entertained t 
as well as instructed, when they are informed, 
that many of them have long persisted in trying 
severe and dangerous experiments on their own 
persons : that one of them, wishing to ascertain 
the medicinal effects of camphor, took at one 
dose such a quantity of it, that his senses failed 
him, and he was nearly killed, and must have 
died, but for the lucky accident of the physician, 
who was called to his assistance when speech- 
less, casting his eyes on the table, and which 
contained an account of the experiments that 
he had been trying : another example is that of 
a most eminent surgeon, and ingenious man, 
who deliberately inoculated himself, by means 
of a lancet dipt in the venereal virus, and kept 


himself thoroughly tainted with that loathsome 
distemper for about three years, that he might 
have the satisfaction of observing the regular 
progress of it through every part of his body. 

Another very ingenious man of the profession, 
in order to ascertain the effects of different 
kinds of food on the human body, lived for 
more than two months on bread and water; 
then for some time on roast goose ; then on 
suet; then on sugar; and at last fairly died 
upon Cheshire cheese. But hundreds or thou- 
sands of experiments, more or less severe or 
dangerous, have been tried by physicians and 
surgeons on their own bodies, without the least 
necessity, and purely for their zeal for science. 

To such experiments, I presume, no reason- 
able objection can be made. If those who 
make them choose to go out of the world in this 
manner, I doubt whether any body has a right, 
and surely nobody can have any inclination, 
to stop them. But it is not so clear to me, 
that they have a right to send their patients 
out of the world ; these have no such zeal for 
science, no ambition for that crown of mar- 

It will naturally, and very justly be taken for 
granted, that some, at least, of our faculty, who 
are so ready to try experiments on their own 
bodies, would be apt, when an opportunity 


offered, to try similar experiments on their 
patients. It is a melancholy truth, but it can- 
not be denied ; all that I can say for the honour 
of my professional brethren is, that the most 
respectable of them have always reprobated 
such conduct as severely as the rest of mankind 
do. Our medical phrase of contempt for it, 
corio hurnano ludere (to play with the human 
hide), abundantly testifies in what abomination 
it has generally been held by our faculty ; and 
it is needless to enter into particulars. But 
to show what I mean, I shall mention one 
instance, which may, perhaps, startle some men 
of weak nerves, who are little used to such 
things: some of the medical profession, out 
of pure love of science, and without the least 
necessity, have taken small-pox matter from 
the dead body of one who died of the worst 
kind of disease, and have inoculated with it. 
A dead body, half putrid, has been dug out of 
the grave, where it had lain some days, and 
small-pox matter has been taken from it for 
the same purpose. — Gregory's Med. Essays. 


Oviedo, in his General History of the Indies, 
observes, " that Indian sculls are four times 
as thick as other men's ; so that coming to 
handy strokes with them, it shall be requisite 


not to strike them on the head with swords, 
for many have been broken on their heads with 
little hurt done." Dr. Bulmer observes, from 
Purchas, " that blockheads and loggerheads 
are in request in Brazil, and helmets are of 
little use, every one having a natural murion of 
his head : for as to the Brazilians' heads, some 
of them are as hard as the wood that grows in 
the country, that they cannot be broken." Stowe, 
in his Survey of London, speaks of the scull of 
a man above three-quarters of an inch thick, 
found at St. Catherine's Cree church. 


In the Anatomy-hall of Leyden is a drink- 
ing-cup of the scull of a Moor, killed in the 
beleaguering of Haarlem. Also a cup made of 
a double brain-pan. We observe, also, that 
No. 51 is the skin of a woman, and No. 52 the 
skin of a woman, prepared like leather ; No. 53 
the skin of a Malacca woman, above 150 years 
old, presented by Richard Snolk, who probably 
had her flead. 

Wanley has an account of an Italian, Nicholas 
Ricardius, whose scull was so solid that he 
used to crack his nuts with it ; aye, even peach- 
stones. Bartholinus makes mention of another, 
who was able to let a coach-wheel pass over 
without the least damage. Purchas, in his Pil- 


grimage, says the Thebean Tartars make drink- 
ing-cups of the sculls of their fathers. 


Voltaire, after having spoken, in his age of 
Louis XIV. of all the sciences and of all the 
arts which distinguish this ever-memorable reign, 
says, " Let us not pass over in silence the most 
useful of all arts, that in which the French 
surpass all nations in the world — I mean sur- 
gery, of which the progress was so rapid, and 
so celebrated in this age, that people came to 
Paris from the extremities of Europe, for all 
those cures and operations which required more 
than usual dexterity; not solely," adds he, 
" were there excellent surgeons in France only, 
but it was even in this country alone, that the 
instruments necessary to this science were per- 
fectly manufactured. This country furnished 
all its neighbours with them ; and I learn, 
from the celebrated Cheseldon, that he, for the 
first time, in 1715, caused to be manufactured the 
instruments of his art." It is, however, a fact, 
that in 1725 the principal surgeons of London 
were Frenchmen; at least, so M. Rouquet 
affirms, in a book, entitled, ' Etdt des Arts en 
Angleterre" page 227. The establishment of 
the Royal Academy of Surgery, and the labours 


of its members, have carried surgery to a degree 
of perfection which one could hardly have 
dared to conjecture. 

Les Recherches sur I'Origine des Decouvertes 
attribute aux Modernes, contain an extract of 
a memoir of M. Barnard, first physician to 
King * , on the surgery of the an- 
cients, in which the author pretends that the 
merit of modern surgeons consists more in 
having revived the discoveries of the ancients, 
and in having placed them in a better point of 
view, than in having really made new ones. 
The author examines one by one all the opera- 
tions that are now practised, and attempts to 
prove, that they were almost all known to the 
ancients, and that there are some with which 
we are unacquainted ; and concludes, that mo- 
dern surgeons are only superior in having in- 
vented a number of different instruments for the 
same operations ; in having made some amend- 
ments to the different methods of operating 
adopted by the ancients, and in having cor- 
rected some of them. 

Matters are now altered, as it is generally 
allowed that the most expert and celebrated 
surgeons exist in Great Britain ; where, doubt- 
less, also, the best instruments of their art are 
at present manufactured. 



The Greek and Roman physicians prepared 
their own medicines,. and these consisted chiefly 
of simples ; but there is reason to suppose, that 
the collection and sale of medical plants, at a 
very early period, was considered as a distinct 
occupation. The same herbs were, besides, 
employed for culinary purposes; some in the 
composition of cosmetics and ointment ; others 
in the formation of painters' colours, dye stuffs, 
and indeed, for the general service of the arts 
and manufactures ; and being, consequently, 
sought for by all classes, were retailed by per- 
sons who were not medical practitioners. We 
find, indeed, that this trade was so extensive 
as to require its division into separate branches, 
and the dealers of each were distinguished by 
different appellations. Of these, the pigmen- 
tarii seem to have dispensed cosmetics and 
drugs for the use of man ; while those herbs 
that were employed in the diseases of cattle 
were only to be obtained from the seplasiarii; 
and the pharmacopolce and medicamentarii ap- 
pear to have sold medicines already com- 
pounded, which, from the manner in which 
they are mentioned, were probably viewed as 
mere nostrums. The business of these dealers 
bore, therefore, but a slight resemblance to that 


mcLUKjiaci Aflu 

of a modern apothecary ; and as every kind of 
warehouse or shop was denominated apotkeca, 
so the proprietor, whatever might be his avoca- 
tion, was called apothecarius. We, therefore, 
erroneously refer these terms, when they occur 
in ancient authors, to the profession of an 
apothecary; and, even in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, those who prepared con- 
fectionary and conserves for the table, were 
named apothecaries. The electuaries, syrups, 
and other medicines commonly in use at that 
period, were indeed usually called confections ; 
and there is a decree of the emperor Frederick 
II., containing regulations for the practice of 
physic in the kingdom of Naples, in which it 
is enjoined, that fresh and sufficient drugs 
should be kept and compounded according to 
the prescriptions of the physicians, by the con- 
fectionarii. But although this would seem to 
imply that physicians prescribed the prepara- 
tion of the medicines for the particular case 
which they were consulted, it in fact ap- 
pears, that they merely selected them from 
some established collection of receipts, and 
that they were kept by the venders in a pre- 
pared state. 

The period when physicians began to resign 
the preparation of their receipts wholly to 
apothecaries, is involved in obscurity ; it has 



been supposed that the custom originated in 
Africa, so early as the time of Avenzoar, in the 
eleventh century ; if that conjecture be correct, 
it would follow, that the practice must have 
been introduced by the Arabian physicians into 
Spain, and the lower part of Italy, and indeed, 
wherever the possessions of the Moors and 
Saracens extended. This would also account 
for the number of Arabic terms of art that are 
still used in pharmacy and chemistry : for, 
although the practice of physic, in christian 
countries, was confined, during the gloom of 
the middle ages, to the monasteries, yet the 
monks acquired their chief knowledge from the 
east ; and the celebrated Constantine Afer, who, 
in the year 1086, was an inmate of the Bene- 
dictine Convent on Mount Casino, near Salerno, 
and is known to have rendered the most essen- 
tial assistance to the school of medicine in that 
city, was himself a native of Carthage. 

Mention is made, in the records of Augs- 
burgh, of one Suitfred Apotneker, as a resident 
there in the year 1285, and Hans Apotheker 
was city chamberlain in 1317; the same name 
also occurs in the early annals of other German 
towns, and it has been thence inferred, that if 
these persons were not actually apothecaries 
themselves, they had derived the appellation 
from some one of their family who had followed 



that occupation; but there is no positive ac- 
count of the exercise of the profession in Ger- 
many, until about the commencement of the 
fifteenth century, when they were established, 
at the public expence, in several of the princi- 
pal cities. These apothecaries were exempted 
from all parochial duties, and furnished with a 
house and a certain annual quantity of wine 
and corn, for which they were, in some in- 
stances, bound to supply the magistrates with 
a specified portion of confectionary at their 
public meetings. That they also dispensed the 
ordinary medicines to the public, gratis, either 
in consideration of their salary, or at the ex- 
pense of the state, appears from an ordinance 
among the police regulations framed in the 
city of Basle, in the year 1440, by which it 
was decreed, that a physician should be estab- 
lished in every imperial city, with the allowance 
of an ecclesiastical benefice, in order that he 
might give advice without a 'fee; and that 
" such costly articles as persons might choose 
to have from the apothecary's shop, they should 
pay for." These shops, however, were so rare, 
even at a later period, that the city of Berlin 
did not contain one until the year 1488; when 
the magistrates granted to one Hans Zekender 
the hereditary right to practice pharmacy there, 
together with the privileges and allowances 


already mentioned, and an engagement thai no 
other apothecary should be allowed to reside in 
the city. Hanover was not possessed of this 
convenience until 1560, nor the court of Dres- 
den until 1581 ; and it is remarkable that both 
these were established and supported by fe- 
males; the first by the reigning duchess, the 
other by the electress Ann. A knowledge of 
medicine formed, indeed, a part of the accom- 
plishments of ladies in the early ages ; and we 
find that, in 1485, the public apothecary at. 
Augsburgh was a woman. 

There is no account of apothecaries in France 
before the year 1484; in Sweden until 1550; 
nor in Russia until the latter end of the same 
century : but in England we find it mentioned 
in the Fcedera, that in the year 1345, King 
Edward III. allowed a pension of sixpence per 
day to Coursus de Gangleland, an apothecary 
of London, for his attendance on his majesty 
during his illness in Scotland. In the year 
1606, the apothecaries of the City of London 
were incorporated with the grocers ; but were 
instituted a separate company in 1617. 

The first dispensatory is generally supposed 
to have been compiled by Valerius Cordus; or, 
at least, that he first designated a collection 
of medicinal receipts by the name of dispen- 




Is it certain that the ancients considered the 
arteries to be conductors merely of the animal 
spirits'? — How does the following passage quad- 
rate with this opinion ? 

" Hse arteriae vero oblonga sunt vasa velut vena, et 
duas tunicas habent, turn propter relatum motum, turn 
quod sanguinem et spiritum continent, et enascuntur ex 
corde, et disperguntur per omnes corporis partes." * 

Paulus JEgineta de Pu/sibws, cap. xn. 


Plempius, in his work " Fundamentum Me- 
dicince, Louvain, 1665," maintains that persons 
arrived at a very great age may, in the usual 
course of things, naturally renew their youth. 
He illustrates his position by an anecdote of 
an Indian gentleman, who lived 310 years, and 
who grew young again three times ! Plempius 
gives many other plumpers equally authentic 
and credible. 

Dr. Hufeland, a German physician, with 
no less extravagance, says, " It is possible 
to live - in our days to as great an age as man- 

* But these arteries are oblong vessels like the veins, 
and have two coats, as well for their relative motion, as 
that they may contain the blood and spirit; and they arise 
from the heart, and are dispersed through all parts of the 


kind did at the time of Abraham, and even at 
a more remote period. There have undoubtedly 
been times, at which men, in the same country, 
have attained to a greater or less age. But that 
nation which should return through a revolution 
to a less civilized state, and approach nearer W 
that of nature, would be most likely to arrive, 
like the people of the early ages, at the real 
term of life." Hufeland elsewhere asserts, 
" that human life may be extended to two hun- 
dred years ; and that it is possible for man, in 
some sort, to grow young again." 


In Miss Hatfield's " Terra Incognita of Lin- 
colnshire," published in 1816, where the fair 
authoress describes a walk to Wintringham, she' 
makes the following observations : — 

" Through the whole of this excursion, I was 
particularly attracted by the almost general cul- 
tivation of the white poppy, with which every 
cottage-garden is adorned. Anxious to know 
the motive for an appearance so remarkable, on 
inquiring I was not a little surprised to find that 
this stately flower was raised for the purpose 
of distillation ; that the villagers had frequent 
recourse to its Lethean juices, as an inducer to 
stupefaction, the worst species of intoxication. 
That the suffering patient, sleepless and ago- 
ii 2 


sized with pain, should fly to the use of opiates ; 
that the Turk, to whom wine is religiously pro- 
hibited, should seek a temporary gratification in 
the delirium they produce, does not surprise us; 
but that the simple healthy peasantry of Lin- 
colnshire, who suffer no prohibitions, who live 
in greater plenty than those of any other county 
in the kingdom, should seek this deleterious- 
enjoyment, greatly surprised me." — s. 


Can you bear the thoughts of being obliged 
to get up out of your warm bed, in a cold win- 
ter's night, or rather morning, to make up me- 
dicines which your employer, just arrived from 
attending a labour, through frost and snow, 
prescribes for a lady just put to bed, or a patient 
taken suddenly or dangerously ill? or, suppos- 
ing that your master is not yet in sufficient bu- 
siness to keep a boy, to take out the medicines,, 
can you make up your mind to think it no hard- 
ship to take them to the patient after you have 
made them up? 

Are you too fine a gentleman to think of conr 
taminating your fingers by administering a clys- 
ter to a poor man, or a rich one, or a child dan- 
gerously ill, when no nurse can be found that 
knows any thing cf the matter? This is a part 


■of your profession that it is as necessary for you 
to know how to perform, as it is to bleed or 
dress a wound ; or are your olfactory nerves 
so delicate, that you cannot avoid turning sick 
when dressing an old neglected ulcer; or when, 
in removing dressings, your nose is assailed 
with the effluvia from a carious bone? If you 
cannot bear these things, put surgery out of 
your head, and go and be apprenticed to a man- 
milliner or perfumer. 

Chamberlaines Tyrocinium Medicum. 


The waters of Alstrop, near Brackley, in Nor- 
thamptonshire, were, in his time, in fashion, 
and were strongly recommended by Drs. Willis 
and Lower. 

Unfortunately, on Dr. Ratcliffe spending some 
time at these Wells, a woman of the village be- 
coming pregnant, and, being called before the 
parish-officers, to filiate the child, laid it upon 
Dr. Ratcliffe, who was highly indignant at the 
charge, and declared, that if they charged him 
with the maintenance, he would put a toad in 
their well. The officers were inexorable, but the 
doctor coming into very great practice, so cried 
down the Alstrop waters, that they entirely lost 
their reputation. Otherwise, Alstrop would have 
been, what Cheltenham is at present. — s. 



(Involving om important -medico legal question.) 

Claudius Noblin and John Jaunet, aged 
about five or six and twenty years each, had 
been drinking and carousing in several public- 
houses, until at last they quarrelled with two 
other individuals. From words it came to blows ; 
and Jaunet received one on the head by a bot- 
tle, which prostrated him on the floor. His 
associate, Noblin, who was, at the moment, 
engaged in combat with a female antagonist 
across a narrow table, fell also deprived of 
sense. This double defeat put an end to the 
fray, and the spectators hastened to afford 
assistance to Noblin and Jaunet. The latter, 
who had been merely stunned by the blow 
which he received, quickly recovered — but 
Noblin died on the spot. On the body, there 
were few or no marks of external violence ; but, 
on dissection, it was evident that Noblin died 
in consequence of a violent determination of 
blood to the head and chest, accelerated, no 
doubt, by the state of inebriety and passion at 
the moment of the rencontre, and totally inde^ 
pendent of any influence from an impression 
or blow ab externo. 

Jaunet's head presented a contused wound, 
of nearly an ineh in extent, accompanied by 


symptoms of concussion, which, however, were 
removed by quietude, low diet, and open bowels. 
Now, suppose Noblin had received this blow 
from the bottle, instead of Jaunet, what influ- 
ence would the circumstance have had on the 
minds of the spectators and of the medical evi- 
dence 1 — It is to be feared, that even the legal 
surgeon or physician would not have been able 
to divest himself entirely of prejudice on such 
an occasion. And yet it is manifest that the 
contusion received by Jaunet would not have 
altered, for worse or for better, the fate of Nob- 
lin, had the latter received it himself. 


John Bottger, a German apothecary, from 
Schlaig, in Voightland, was the first in Europe 
who invented the art of making porcelain ; in the 
early part of his life he was apprenticed to an 
apothecary, of the name of Zorn, at Berlin, 
where he met with an alchemist, who, in return 
for some good offices done to him by Bottger, 
promised to teach him the art of making gold. 
Bottger then, imagining himself to be in posses- 
sion of the secret of making gold, immediately 
concluded that his fortune was made, and ran 
away from Berlin to Saxony, in the year 1700. 
Thither he was pursued by his master, but he 
found protection in that country ; where they 


at length, nevertheless, urged him to give a 
specimen of his pretended knowledge, which, 
in fact, the poor apothecary was not able to do, 
as he had been completely imposed upon, and 
in truth knew nothing of the matter. It hap- 
pened, however, that having, in the course of 
his experiments, mixed various earths together, 
in order to make strong and durable crucibles, 
on baking them he accidentally discovered the 
art of making porcelain ; thus, the intended 
transmutation took place, not in the metals, 
indeed, but in his own person ; and, as if he had 
been touched with a conjuror's wand, he was, 
on a sudden, transformed from an alchemist 
into a potter; and, in consequence of the suc- 
cess of the manufactory, from a potter he be- 
came a baron, so that, as it has happened in 
numerous cases with the alchemists, although 
he missed his first object, yet the experiments 
which he was led to make opened to him ano- 
ther road to riches and honour. — s. 


In Aubrey's Lives and Letters from the Bod- 
leian Library, the author relates the following 
curious anecdotes, among others, of Butler, the 
famous physician, whom he represents as a man 
of great modes (singularities); — 

" A serving man brought his master's water 


lo Dr. Butler, being then in his studie, with 
turned barres, but would not be spoken with. 
After much fruitlesse importunity, the man told 
ihe Dr. he was resolved he should see his 
master's water ; lie would not be turned away; 
and so threw it in on the Dr.'s head. This 
humour pleased the Dr. and he went to the 
gent, and cured him. The Dr. lyeing at the 
Savoy, in London, next the water-side, where 
a balcony looked into the Thames, a patient 
came to him, that was grievously tormented 
with an ague. The Dr. orders a boat to be in 
readinesse under his windowe, and discoursed 
with the patient (a gentleman) in the balcony, 
when, on a signall given, two or three lusty 
fellowes came behind the gentleman, and threw 
him a matter of twenty feet into the Thames. 
— This surprise absolutely cured him." — p. 267. 


Our phrenological readers are aware that 
Drs. Gall and Spurtzheim place the organ of 
amativeness in the cerebellum, and some insu- 
lated facts, recorded by authors, seem to sup- 
port the idea of an intimate relation between 
the brain and the genital organs. The follow- 
ing case, related nearly 200 years ago, by 
Hildanus, will be interesting to the phrenolo- 
gists of the present day. 


In the year 1630, a consistory court was held 
at Berne, at which Hildanus, and several other 
physicians assisted, in order to examine Michael 
Tutzler, aged 36, for impotency, of which, it 
appears, he was accused by his wife. Nothing 
external was defective; but the man himself 
confessed, that eight years previously he had 
received a severe blow on his head from a stick, 
which had deprived him of hearing in his right 
ear, and had caused, for a time, an involuntary 
discharge of urine. From that period " Confi- 
tebatur penem erigi non posse." Upon, this 
report being made to the court by the medical 
committee, a divorce was granted. 


It is certain, that the knowledge of medicine 
is involved in many difficulties, has advanced 
slowly, and is far behind that of every other 
science ; yet the improvements which have 
taken place in modern times, and the substitu- 
tion of experiment for theory and system, 
afford, to future generations, a happier pros- 
pect. The principle of late interesting publi- 
cations, which has for object the prevention of 
diseases, by a physical education, or the diffu- 
sion of physiological knowledge, is peculiarly 
deserving of encouragement and praise. The 
arcana of this profession, like all other mys- 


teries, lias covered infinite mischief. To those 
disinterested men of genius, who have con- 
verted truth, and simplified the sciences, the 
world will be indebted for light and happi- 


Dr. Atwell was a Cornish man, and not only 
practised physic for the body, but for the soul 
also, being parson of St. Ives, where he lived 
about 1602. His success in the cure of souls 
we have no means of judging, but the voice of 
public fame has been sufficiently favourable to 
him in his medical capacity. 

Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, speaks of 
him as well versed in the theory of physic, and 
very successful in the practice of it, even 
beyond the belief of most. Although he now 
and then used blood-letting, he mostly pre- 
scribed milk for all diseases, and very often 
milk and apples, which apparently simple, in- 
efficacious, and even contrary medicaments, 
either by their own virtues, or the fortune of 
the physician, or the fancy of the patients, 
recovered many out of the most desperate extre- 
mities, and his reputation maintained itself for 
many years. 

Dr. Atwell, as became a minister of the 
gospel, bestowed his pains on the poor gratis, 


and from those who paid him a fee he took 
moderately, and always gave one half of what 
he received from the master as a vale to the 
servants of the house. 

Although the singularity of a man's practice, 
and his success in it, is a very common means 
of his reputation, yet it may be doubted whe- 
ther the partition of his fees with the servants 
of his patients cannot but have had a consider- 
able effect in regard to their recommendations, 
when they were likely to be so highly benefitted. 
Many tricks of this kind, to obtain practice, 
have been put into use, but few in which so 
large a proportion has been given to the trum- 
peters. Was not this owing to his conscientious- 
ness of having, in reality, little or no real skill 
in physic ? — s. 


It was soon observed by Dr. Freind, that 
Sanctorius, Borelli, and Baglivi, in Italy ; and 
Pitcairne and Keil at home, had introduced a 
more mathematical method of enquiring after 
physical truths, than had been known to most 
of the writers of the preceding age. He, there- 
fore, resolved to apply their way of reasoning, 
in order to set a subject of great importance, 
of daily use, and general concern, about which 
the learned have always been divided, in such a 


fight as might put an end to disputes, and open 
the eyes of mankind, to what was then sup- 
posed a natural imperplexed theory, from 
whence, as a matter of course, an effectual and 
satisfactory practice might be deduced. This 
he imagines himself to have accomplished in his 
Emmenologia, which he gave to the public 
when he was about the age of twenty-eight; 
and though at first it met with considerable 
opposition through the reverence entertained 
for old systems, and the prejudices with which 
others beheld the alterations made by their 
contemporaries, yet it was hailed by the mathe- 
matical sect as an excellent work. 

In the spring of 1701, he had previously 
written a letter to Dr. Sloane, a letter in latin, 
concerning some extraordinary cases of persons 
afflicted with convulsions, in Oxfordshire, which 
at that time made a very great noise, and might 
probably have been magnified into something 
supernatural, if our author had not taken great 
pains to set them in their proper light. 

In the succeeding year he was appointed to 
read chemical lectures in the University of 
Oxford, in which he made a fresh attempt to 
extend the mathematical and mechanical expla- 
nation of natural philosophy to chemistry ; but, 
although the Hon. Robert Boyle and M. Lemeri 
had previously attempted the same, yet the 


subject does not seem to admit of this mode of 
explanation ; and hence, although these lectures 
were received with satisfaction by the audience, 
to whom they were addressed, no chemist of 
reputation ever paid the least attention to them ; 
and of all the chemical books which have been 
written, Freind's Lectures are, perhaps, that 
which is the soonest thrown down half read by 
any practical man. 

In 1705, he attended the famous Earl Peter- 
borough in his Spanish expedition, in which, 
as physician to the army, he had no small share 
of fatigue ; and, on his return home through 
Italy, he made a tour to Rome, partly for the 
pleasure of visiting and conversing with Baglivi 
and Lancisi. On coming back to England, lie 
found the character of his patron (the Earl of 
Peterborough) attacked; and, out of a spirit of 
justice and gratitude, plunged into politics, and 
wielded his pen in defence of that great man. 
He was created doctor of physic July 7, 1707, 
his reputation every day increasing, in propor- 
tion to the increasing violence of party disputes, 
and the predominance of the mechanical theory 
of physic, in consequence of the fame of Sir 
Isaac Newton's philosophy. 

In 1722 he was elected a burgess to par- 
liament for Launceston, in the county of Corn- 
wall ; and, acting as a member of parliament 


with that warmth and freedom which was 
natural to him, he distinguished himself by 
some quick speeches against such measures as 
he disapproved. As those were very critical 
times, and a matter of great importance was 
going on, in which Dr. Freind conceived him- 
self obliged to take some share, it drew upon 
him so much suspicion, that the Habeas Corpus 
act being at that time suspended, a warrant 
was issued against him, for being concerned in 
Bishop Atterbury's plot; and he was committed 
to the Tower, where he continued prisoner three 
months, when he was first admitted to bail, and 
afterwards discharged from his recognizance. 

It was during this confinement that Dr. 
Freind laid the plan of his History of Physic, 
from the time of Galen to the close of the six- 
teenth century; the first part of which was 
published in 1725, and the second in the year 

The severity which Dr. Freind met with, from 
those who differed from him in political princi- 
ples, -was amply recompensed soon after he 
obtained his liberty, by the favour she re- 
ceived from George II., then Prince of Wales, 
who entrusted him with the care of some of his 
royal family, when indisposed, and who under 
him happily recovered. 

His health having been some time previously 

1 12 MF.D1C1NE AND 

on the decline, Dr. Freind expired July 6tlr, 
1728, in the 52d year of his age. The pension 
settled upon his wife bore testimony how large 
a share he possessed of his sovereign's affec- 
tions. Dr. Wigan published his latin works, 
and added to them his History of Physic, trans- 
lated into the same language, with an excellent 
historical preface, and a grateful commemora- 
tion of his obligation to the deceased. 

The celebrity which this author attained in 
his own time, is to be ascribed more to party 
spirit, and to his attempts to extend the mathe- 
matical principles of natural philosophy into 
medicine and chemistry, than to any professional 
abilities. His History of Physic is a meagre 
sketch, and disappoints the expectation of the 


We have already related an instance from 
that entertaining work, Aubrey's Letters, from 
the Bodleian Library, of the instantaneous cure 
of an ague, by Dr. Butler; several similar 
instances of the cure of diseases by fright are 
on record. 

The Honorable Robert Boyle relates the 
case of a gentleman in Cornwall who was ren- 
dered unable to walk by repeated attacks of the 
gout; but, as he belonged to a very religious 
family, he was wheeled every Sunday to ehurclu 

MUDJCA.L MF.N. I i ■) 

():-, one of these days an alarm was given that 
the Spaniards had landed from a couple of gal- 
leys, and were then approaching the place to 
plunder it ; the congregation instantly dis- 
persed, and, in the confusion, the gentleman 
was totally forgotten, and left by himself in the 
church. In this extremity he, in his turn, for- 
got his disorder, and ran out after his friends, 
who were agreeably surprised, as soon as they 
recovered from their fright sufficiently to look 
behind them, to see their afflicted friend close 
at their heels. 

A somewhat similar instance is recorded, by 
the same author, of an old gentleman, who, 
after having several poultices of boiled turnips 
applied to his hands and feet, was set in a 
chair in the garden to enjoy the fresh air. The 
scent of his poultices attracted the notice of an 
old sow, who entered the garden, and began 
to attack his feet to get at the turnips : the old 
gentleman was apprehensive that she might 
not content herself with her natural food, but 
might trespass on his toes, and as he knew 
that the family were all engaged at a distant 
part, far cut of his call, he was so frightened, 
that his apprehensions not only produced an 
immediate cure of his disease, but he was also 
enabled to get rid of his disagreeable assailant. 
These were fortuitous cures of the gout ; but 



we shall hereafter relate an anecdote of a 
French physician which may be put in practice. 


It may gratify the adherents of that great 
northern light in physic, John Brown, to learn 
that their hero has divided the faculty in Sicily 
into two parties, in each of which symptoms are 
to be traced evincing the existence of a moral 
malady, but too common, if we might not say r 
almost universal amongst the faculty of the 
British islands, the odium medicum. 

A preliminary to a Sicilian consultation has 
more than once produced the question — How 
does opium operate? And the true Brunonian 
answer, Non sedat opium,* has often been seen 
written in large characters, on the outside of a 
wine-house, in the plain of Catania, followed by 
tlie appropriate exclamation, Viva il celeberrimo 
Brown, f — s. 


The name of Boerhaave is justly regarded as 
one of the most illustrious in the calendar of 
modern medicine. After having vigorously strug- 
gled with poverty in his youth, his talents and 
his fame at length created a fortune for him; 

« Opium is not a sedative, 
t The very celebrated Brown for ever. 


and, it is said, that he left two millions of florins 
to his only son. Did this wealth alter the man ? 
Let us learn from his own mouth what he was in 
his 67th year; when, in a letter to his old scho- 
lar, J. B. Bassaud, then Physician to the Empe- 
ror of Germany, he writes thus : — 

" My health is very good. I sleep at my country- 
house. I go to town every morning by five o'clock; and 
I occupy myself there, from that time until six in the even- 
ing, in relieving the sick. I understand chemistry; I 
amuse myself in reading it; I revere, I love, I adore, the 
only God! When I return to the country, I visit my 
plants: I acknowledge and admire the presents with which 
the liberality of my friend Bassaud has enriched me. My 
garden seems to be proud of the variety and strength of 
its trees. I pass my life in contemplating my plants ; I 
grow old in the desire of possessing new ones. Amiable 
and sweet folly! Thus riches only serve to irritate the 
thirst of possession, and the miser is miserable from the 
liberality of his benefactor. Forgive the madness of an 
eld friend, who wishes to plant trees, the beauty and shade 
of which will be destined to give delight only to his 
nephews. It is thus that my life passes, without any other 
chagrin than my distance from you, and happy in every 
thing else." 

What an amiable picture does this present 
of that great and good man ! What activity, and 
what zeal for the relief of suffering humanity! 
The original letter is written in Latin, and it 
has been found difficult to catch the spirit of the 

i 2 



' Mr. Coxe, in his Tour through Switzerland^ 
says, " You have heard, perhaps, of Michel. 
Schuppach, the famous Swiss doctor, of whose 
intuitive sagacity, in discovering the seat of dis- 
orders, and applying suitable remedies to them, 
many wonderful stories are recounted by tra- 
vellers, and which generally, I suppose, have 
increased in the marvellous, like Virgil's Pro- 
gress of Fame, in proportion as they receded 
from the scene of action. I am now lodged in 
the house of this celebrated .ffisculapius } it is 
situated above the village of Langenace, on the 
side of a steep mountain; and, from that cir- 
cumstance, he is generally known by the appel- 
lation of the physician of the mountain. 

" Upon our arrival here, we found the doctor 
in his apartment, surrounded by a number of 
peasants, who were consulting him upon their 
respective complaints, each having brought with 
him a small bottle, containing some of his water, 
for it is by inspecting the urine that this medical 
sage pretends to judge of the state of the patient. 
His figure is extremely corpulent; he has a pene- 
trating eye, and one of the best-humoured coun- 
tenances I ever saw. He sets himself opposite 
to the person who consults him, one moment 
e-rcirriinin* the water, and the next the patient ; 


and continues regarding attentively the one and 
the other for sometime; always whistling during 
the intervals. He then opens the state of the case, 
acquaints the consultant with the nature of his 
complaints, and has often the good fortune to 
hit upon the true cause. In a word, his knack of 
discovering disorders by urine, has gained such 
implicit faith in his skill, that one might as well 
doubt in the Pope's infallibility, before a zealous 
Catholic, as of the doctor's, in the presence of 
his patients. He has certainly performed seve- 
ral great cures ; and the rumour of them has 
brought him patients from all quarters of 
Europe. There are, at this time, in his house, 
and in the village, several English and French 
people, together with many Swiss, who are come 
hither for his advice. 

" The doctor was formerly, it s«ems, a village 
surgeon, has a slight tincture of anatomy, and is 
esteemed a proficient in botany and chemistry ; 
but his reputation as a physician has now been 
established for some years. He is said to have 
but little acquaintance with the theory of physic ; 
the greatest part of his knowledge being derived 
from his extensive practice, notwithstanding he 
never stirs a quarter of a mile from his own 
house ; for he would not take the trouble of go- 
ing to Berne even to attend the king of France. 

" It is more than probable, that much of this 


extraordinary man's success, in his practice, is 
owing to the great faith of his patients, to the 
benefit they receive from change of climate, to 
the salubrious air of this mountain, and to the 
amusements arising from that constant succes- 
sion of different company which assemble in 
this place, in order to apply to him for assist- 
ance. But whatever may have been the causes 
of his celebrity, it has come to him, as all ac- 
counts agree, unsought for by himself. He has, 
certainly, many excellent qualities; humane and 
charitable to the highest degree, he not only 
furnishes the indigent peasants, who consult 
him, with medicines gratis, but generally makes 
them a present in money besides ; and he al- 
ways appropriates a certain portion of his gains 
to the poor of his parish. His wife, as also his 
grand-daughters, who live with him, are dressed 
like the peasants of the country; and he has 
shewn his good sense by giving the latter no 
better than a plain education ; the eldest he 
bestowed in marriage when she was but fifteen, 
upon one of his assistants, and gave with her 
1300/., no inconsiderable portion for this coun- 
try. He procured a match so, early for her, he 
said, to prevent her being spoiled by the young 
gentlemen telling her she was pretty, and in- 
spiring her with the ambition of marrying abov.e 
her rank.. 


" If domestic harmony, and the most perfect 
simplicity of manners, have any pretensions to 
please, you would be highly delighted with this 
rural family. The wife is a notable, active 
woman, and not only superintends all the house- 
hold affairs with remarkable cleverness, but even 
performs great part of the business with her 
own hands; she assists her husband likewise in 
making up his medicines; and, as he talks no 
other language than the Swiss-German, she 
■serves occasionally as his interpreter; and, as 
a proof of his confidence in her administration 
in his affairs, she acts also as his treasurer, and 
receives all his fees; which, in the course of a 
year, amount to a considerable sum; for, al- 
though he never demands more than the price 
of his medicines, yet no gentleman consults 
him without giving him an additional gratuity. 
Many presents have, likewise, been made to 
herself, from persons who have reaped benefit 
by her husband's prescriptions ; several of these 
consist of valuable trinkets, with which, on the 
days of ceremony, she decks herself forth to 
the best advantage, in the simple dress of the 

" This singular man is very often employed 
in giving his advice from eight in the morning 
till six in the evening, with no other intermis- 
sion than during the time he is at table. His 


drugs are of the best kind, for he collects the 
simples as well as distils them himself. His 
house, like those of the peasants, is constructed 
of wood ; and, though always full of people, is 
remarkably neat and clean. In short, every 
thing about him has the appearance of the pleas- 
ing simplicity of former ages. 

" I had almost forgotten to tell you, that I 
consulted him this morning myself; and assur- 
edly I have reason to be highly flattered with 
his prescription, for he told me I was in such 
good health, that the only advice he had to 
give me was ' to eat and drink well, to dance, 
be merry, and take moderate exercise.'" 


It may amuse the reader to lay before him a 
few points to illustrate the state of medicine as 
practised in Sicily. With this view some dog- 
mas are here transcribed from the Institutiojies 
Medicince of the Professor of that science in the 
University of Catania : — 

" Ungues pedum et digitorum limati, vomitum excitant, 
et valent contra epilepsiam, lethargiam , hydropem et inter - 
mittentes febres."* 

* The parings of the nails of the hands and feet excite 
vomiting, and are useful in the falling sickness, in lethar- 
gy, dropsy, and agues. 


" Urina interne assumpta, et recens et lepida ad § v ad 
5 vj matutino tempore, jejuno stomacho,viperarum vene- 
num arcet/' * 

•' Urina mariti a parturientibus hausta partum facilem 

Many other similar prescriptions are scattered 
all throughout the work. Such a breakfast as 
the second receipt, such Siculce dapes, would not 
suit an English stomach. — y. 


When the Surgeons of Edinburgh were, in 
1505, incorporated, under the denominations of 
Surgeons and Barbers, it was required of them 
to be able to rend and write ! " to know anato- 
mie, nature, and complexion of everie member 
of humanis bodie, and, lykwayes to know all 
vaynes of the samyn, that he may make flew- 
bothemie in dew time;" together with a perfect 
knowledge of shaving beards. These were all 
the qualifications that seemed necessary to the 
art of surgery, at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The practice of physic was, if possi- 
ble, in a still more deplorable state. — Campbell's 
Journey from Edinburgh to the Highlands. 

* Urine drank fresh and warm in a morning, on an 
empty stomach, guards against the poison of vipers. 

t The husband's urine, drank by a lying-in woman, 
procures her an easy delivery. 


Here, it is to be observed, barbers and sur- 
geons, as already well known, were one and the 
same profession, who exclusively practised as 
a craft the dressing of wounds, shaving of 
beards, and making and selling of whiskey 
throughout the gude town. 


John Baptist Van Helmont, the second great 
chief of the chemical physicians, was born of a 
noble family, at Brussels, in the year 1577, 
thirty-six years after the death of Paracelsus. 
He lost his father in 1580; and, being the 
youngest child, applied himself, against the 
consent of his mother, and without consulting 
his friends, to the study of physic. He finished 
his course of philosophy in the year 1594, being 
the 17th of his age, when he was noted for a 
great reader, having read Galen twice, Hippo- 
crates once, and all the other physicians, both 
Greeks and Arabs, with great care; and even 
common-placed the more remarkable passages 
in them. When, going to Lovain, he was 
appointed, by the professors Thomas Tyenus, 
Gerard Villers, and Hornius, to read Public 
Lectures on Chirurgery, in the College of Phy- 
sicians. In the 22d year of his age, being the 
year 1599, he was created doctor of physic at 
Lovain. Here he begun to see through the 

MEDICAL Mt'N. 123 

insufficiency of the school-physic, long before 
he discovered any better medicines of his own. 
Happening to be troubled with a slight itch, 
which he could not get rid of by the school- 
method, but which was easily removed by 
means of sulphur, he repented having ever 
devoted himself to the study of physic, consi- 
dering the nobleness of his birth, and that none 
of his family had hitherto stooped to that pro- 
fession. On these motives he threw it up, 
divided his fortune among his relations, and 
quitted his country, with an intention never 
to return. His books, to the value of 200 
crowns, he threw aside, and setting out for foreign 
countries, rambled ten whole years, till, being 
instructed in chemistry by a certain illiterate 
person, he applied himself wholly to that art ; 
and having, in the compass of two years, ob- 
tained a few chemical medicines, he became 
capable of curing some diseases. 

In the year 1609, he married a rich and noble 
wife, with whom he retired to Wilwoord, where 
he gave himself wholly up to the pursuits of 
chemistry ; during his noviciate in this art, he 
tried many dangerous experiments, which fre- 
quently hazarded his life. And though he did 
not visit patients and practise physic for gain, 
he assures us he cured every year some thou- 
sands of sick people. He spent fifty whole 


years in distillations ; and, during his retirement 
at Wilwoord, he examined, with great pains 
and industry, all kinds of bodies, fossile, vege- 
table, or animal, in a chemical way ; and thus 
first furnished a new body or course of chemical 
knowledge. Here he made the discoveries of 
oil of sulphur per campanam, the laudanum 
Paracelsi, spirit of hart's-horn, spirit of human 
blood, 6al volatile oleosum, &c. 

He was in high esteem with the electoral 
bishop of Cologne, a prince eminently skilled in 
chemistry ; and was invited, by the emperor 
Rudolph, and two other emperors, to the court 
of Vienna; but he always refused. In the 
year 1624, he published a treatise, printed at 
Liege, De Aquis Spadanis, or, of the Spa- Wa- 
ters, and afterwards several other pieces. He 
was not able to cure two of his sons, whom he 
lost of the plague, nor his eldest daughter of a 
leprosy, though he practised on her full two 
years. Nor could he cure his wife, nor his 
maid, nor himself, of poison. In January, 
1640, being the 63d year of his age, he was 
seized with a fever, attended with a slight shi- 
vering, which made his teeth chatter ; a prick- 
ing pain about the sternum, a difficulty of res- 
piration, and a spitting first of bloody matter, 
then of pure blood. For the removal hereof, 
he took shavings of the penis of a stag, upon 



which the pain grew less ; then he took a dram 
of goat's blood, and the spitting of blood 
stopped for four days, leaving only a slight 
cough, with a moderate expectoration : but the 
fever still remained, and was followed by a 
pain in the spleen, for which he took wine 
boiled with crabs-eyes ; whereupon all the 
symptoms disappeared. In the year 1643, he 
was seized with a syncope, occasioned by the 
smoke of charcoal, which he cured with sulphur 
of vitriol. On the 18th of November, 1644, 
he fell into an asthma, attended with two 
fits of a pleurisy, and after languishing seven 
weeks, died of a slight fever and extreme weak- 
ness, on the 30th of December, 1644. As he 
perceived his death approaching, he called for 
his son, and gave him the following charge. 
Take all my writings, the crude as well as the 
finished ones, and join them together ; to your 
care 1 commit them ; do with them what you 
think good ; for so it has pleased Almighty God, 
who directs every thing to the best purposes. 
This son was a person of deep thought, but a 
little tainted with enthusiasm, and in his fa- 
ther's life-time had strolled about with a gang 
of gypsies. 

After the Father's decease, he acquitted him- 
self of the trust, publishing them just as he found 


them, without any regard to order, consistency, 
or correctness ; and, beside, trusted the impres- 
sion principally to the printer; so that we fre- 
quently find Helmont relating things in one 
place, which he contradicts in another; and, 
indeed, 'tis no wonder we don't find the same 
tenor throughout; for, as chemistry grew under 
his hands, and as many new views must turn 
up in forty or fifty years, which he spent in gra- 
dually improving the art, it is easy to conceive 
how there should arise a difference. The pieces 
published by himself are all excellent; that of 
the stone is incomparable, and the best; that 
of fevers is a valuable work ; and that of the 
humours is a fine piece. The Galenical doc- 
trine of the four elements, four qualities, four 
degrees, and four humours, with the method of 
cure by tempering these degrees, are here clearly 
aud directly proved to be false and insignificant. 
The treatise on the plague, which is one of the 
posthumous pieces, has many good things, 
though it does not come up to the merit of the 
former. But the rest are all so much inferior, 
that one would never suspect them to have come 
from the same hand The best edition is that 
of Amsterdam, in 4to. apud Elzevir. In ihe 
Venetian edition, in folio, there are several piece* 
not Helmont's. — s. 



Even in the present day the fee of a phy- 
sician is twopence from the tradesman, tenpence 
from the man of fashion, and nothing from the 
poor. Some of the noble families agree with 
the physician by the year, paying him annually 
fourscore reals, that is, sixteen shillings for his 
attendance on them and their families. They 
all acknowledge that the monks are more 
liberal than people of the first fashion, especially 
if confidence and secresy are needful. 

Townsend's Journey. 


Fuller quaintly observes, in his Worthies of 
England, that the precept in the Apocrypha 
hath a canonical truth contained in it, ' Honour 
the physician for necessity sake.' Although 
King Asa received little benefit by them, it was 
because of his preposterous addressing himself 
to them before he went to God. And the woman 
in the Gospel reaped less ease by their endea- 
vours, because God reserved her as a subject 
for his own miraculous cure; yet, in all ages, 
millions have been cured by their practice. 

It may be asked, What use there was of phy- 
sicians in the Christian church, seeing that lb« 
Apostles miraculously cured all maladies, and 


so (to our apprehension) gave a supersedeas to 
the practitioners in that faculty ; yet there is 
honorable mention made of Luke, the beloved 
physician (Col. 4. 14). As for the Apostles, they 
had not always power, at their own pleasure, to 
work miracles and cure diseases in all persons ; 
no, nor always themselves, witness sick St. Paul 
receiving, in himself, the sentence of death 
(2 Cor. 1. 8,9); but as they were directed for 
the glory of God, and other occasions. And, 
therefore, notwithstanding their miraculous pow- 
er, St. Luke might have plenty of practice in his 

The ancient Britons, who went without clothes, 
may well be presumed to live withoutphysic; yet 
sure they had some experimental receipts used 
amongst them, and left the rest to nature and 
temperance to cure. 

The Saxons had those they termed leeches, 
or blood-letters, but were little .skilled in metho- 
dical practice. 

Under the Normans, physicians began in Eng- 

Physic, before 1350, was no distinct profes- 
sion by itself, but practised by men in orders ; 
witness Nicholas de Fernham, the chief English 
physician, and bishop of Durham ; Hugh of 
Evesham, a physician and cardinal ; Grisant, a. 
physician and pope. 



The word physician appears not on our Sta- 
tutes till the days of King Henry the Eighth, 
who incorporated their College in London; since 
which time they have multiplied and flourished 
in our nation, but never was more and more 
learned than in our age, wherein that art, and 
especially the anatomical part thereof, is much 


A man was impressed into his majesty's ser- 
vice early in the beginning of the late revolu- 
tionary war. He was taken to the Mediterra- 
nean, and there received a fall from the yard- 
arm; he was picked up on the deck, insensible. 
The vessel soon after made Gibraltar, and he 
was put into the hospital there, where he re- 
mained some months insensible; he was then 
removed on-board of the Dolphin frigate, to 
Deptford ; the surgeon who attended him there, 
was one day visited by Mr. Davy, a dresser at 
Guy's hospital. The surgeon said to Mr. Davy, 
" I have a curious case of a man who has been 
insensible for a long time; his breathing is 
rather laborious, his pulse natural, and it cor- 
responds with the working of his fingers; but 
he lies on his back, deprived of volition and 
sensation." Mr. Davy accompanied the surgeon 
to see him, and he found that there was a slight 

VOL. III. k 


depression of the head. Mr. Davy said, " Send 
him to St. Thomas's Hospital." He came, and was 
under the care of Mr. Cline. He was found lying 
on his back, breathing with considerable difficulty, 
with a regular pulse; and each time the pulse 
beat, the fingers moved, so that you might tell 
his pulse by his fingers. If he wanted food, he 
moved his lips or tongue; that was the sign. 
Mr. Cline found a depression, and operated 
upon him. Thirteen months, and a few days, 
after the accident, he was operated on by the 
trephine, and the depressed portion of bone 
elevated. Whilst laying on the table, so soon 
as the portion of depressed bone was raised, the 
fingers ceased working. The operation was per- 
formed at one o'clock ; and, at four in the after- 
noon, I was going round the wards, and saw 
him raised on his pillow; I went up. to him and 
said, " Have you any pain?" He put his hand 
to his head : volition and sensation had returned, 
and, in four days, he got out of bed and con- 
versed; in a few days more, he told us where 
he came from, of his being pressed, of his being 
carried down to Plymouth or Falmouth ; but 
from the moment of the accident, thirteen 
months and a few days, oblivion had spread his 
drowsy mantle over him; he had drunk freely 
from the Lethean cup; and there had been, 
during the whole of this period, almost a total 


cessation of every bodily and mental function ; 
yet, on removing a small piece of bone, the 
powers of both body and mind were restored. 
Thus you will see, that you must not be deter- 
red from performing the operation by any length 
of time, for still you may be able to restore the 
powers of the mind and body. 

Sir Astley Cooper's Lectures. 


u I saw at Philadelphia," says M. Brissot de 
Warville,* a black physician, named James 
Derham. The following account of him was 
attested to me by many physicians : — 

" He was brought up a slave in a family of 
Philadelphia, where he learned to read and 
write, and was instructed in the principles of 
religion. When young, he was sold to Dr. John 
Kearsley, junior, who employed him in com- 
pounding medicines, and administering them, 
in some cases, to the sick. After the death of 
Dr. Kearsley, he passed through different hands, 
and came to be the property of George West, 
surgeon to the British army, under whom, during 
the late war in America, he performed the lower 
functions in physic. 

* Author of the ' New Travels in the United States of 

K 2 



" At the close of the war, he was purchased 
by Dr. Robert Dove, of New Orleans, who em- 
ployed him a& his assistant. He gained the 
doctor's good opinion and friendship to such a 
degree, that he soon gave him his' freedom on 
moderate conditions. Derham was, by this 
time, so well instructed, that he immediately 
began to practice, with success, at New Orleans. 
He is about twenty-six years of age, married, 
but has no children. His practice brings him 
3000 livres, (1251.) a-year. Dr. Weston told 
me, that he conversed with him, particularly on 
the acute diseases of the country where he lives, 
and found him well versed in the simple me- 
thods, now in practice, of treating those diseases. 
' I thought,' said the doctor, ' to have indicated 
to him some new remedies; but he indicated new 
ones to me.' * 

" He is modest, and has engaging manners; 
he speaks French with facility, and has some 
knowledge of Spanish." 

* It has been generally thought, and even written by 
some authors of note, that blacks are inferior to the white 
in mental capacity. This opinion begins to disappear; 
the. nerthern states furnish examples to the contrary. By 
instruction, a black may be rendered capable of any of the 
professions j and the head of a negro may be organized 
for the most astonishing calculations; and, consequently, 
for all the sciences. 



I do remember an apothecary, 
And hereabouts he dwells, whom late I noted 
In scarlet suit, at monthly town assembly, 
Master o' the ceremonies: smiling his looks, 
Soft flattery had dimpled well his cheeks, 
And in his parlour hung a set of comic prints, 
A macaw stuff'd, and other birds 
Of rarest plumage ; and upon his chimney-piece 
A circulating novel, ivory boxes, 
Green-case of instruments, tooth-picks, pomades, 
Remnants of court-plaster, distill'd rose water; 
" Permacity for an inward bruise" 
Were neatly ranged, and made up a shew. • 

Noting this elegance, to myself I said, 
And if a lady need some lip-salve, now 
" (To guard these rubies yet unparagoned,)" 
Here waits a gentle swain will make it up, 
Being market-day — he's sure at home. 

(Romeo, v. 1.) 


Some marvellous cases of this kind are on 
record; but, though on record, are of a very 
suspicious authenticity. Dr. Moseley has re- 
lated the case of a negro-woman, in Jamaica, 
who performed the operation on herself, by cut- 
ting boldly through the uterus, and extracting 
a child from the left side of the abdomen. This 
operation was performed with a butcher's knife. 
The child died of locked -jaw, but the mother 


recovered. Extraordinary and incredible as 
this case may appear, it is more than equalled 
by a case recently published in the New- York 
Medical and Physical Journal, for March, 1823. 
This case was reported to the Rennzelaer 
Medical Society, by Dr. Samuel M'Clellan, 
(who appears to have been one of the two phy- 
sicians in attendance) the president of the So* 
ciety, and by them forwarded to several of the 
American journals. It is one of those extraor- 
dinary cases that cannot easily be believed, nor 
yet positively denied. The operator was a 
young servant girl, a quadroon, (one-fourth 
black) and onlj fourteen,. years of age. While 
the family were at dinner, she went a little way 
from the house, and placed herself on a wreath 
of snow, where she was discovered by her mas- 
ter in the act of covering something with snow, 
which proved, afterwards, to be a naked child. 
As soon as perceived, she immediately ran to 
the house with the second child hanging out at 
the wound, together with a considerable portion 
of her intestines. She was now surrounded by 
two medical men, Dr. Basset and another. A 
wound was found near the center of the epigas- 
tric region, from which the second foetus was ex- 
tracted. This wound was four inches in length, 
extending in a diagonal direction, as respected 
the abdomen, about two inches above the umbi- 


licus, with another incision, at nearly a right 
angle with the former, extending toward the 
sternum. The lower part of the abdomen was 
considerably distended with blood. This was 
first evacuated by changes of posture and gen- 
tle compression. The wound was then sewed 
up, and a bandage applied. She recovered. 
" I should judge," says the reporter, " from the 
appearance of the blood upon the snow, (there 
being three several places where she evidently 
stopped) that the incision was made imme- 
diately preceding the rupture of the membranes, 
and that the first child was delivered, by the 
usual way, the third pain after the rupture." 


Fabricius Hildanus, a great physician and 
very good surgeon, once happened to find him- 
telf singularly embarrassed. He was called to 
see a peasant, into whose eye flew a sparkle of 
iron. He attempted different ways to extract it, 
and even made use of some instrument with a 
view to that effect; but the sparkle escaped him 
by its tenuity, and all his operations served only 
to occasion a violent inflammation in the eye of 
his patient. Fabricius returned home quite pen- 
sive, despairing of success, when his wife, being 
informed of what had passed, began to laugh at 
her husband's manner of treating the accident. 


The doctor, finding himself ' at fault,' did not 
argue the case with her, lest she, in her turn, 
should be reduced to a similar dilemma; and 
she being desirous to enjoy her triumph over 
him, told her husband that she would be glad 
to accompany him to the patient, conceiving that 
she might be of some service to him. Little 
thinking that any further attempt would be 
attended with success, Fabricius assents to 
every thing, and obeys his wife, who bade him 
hold the patient's eye as wide open as he could. 
This done, she forthwith drew out of her pocket 
a loadstone, which she moved about, as near as 
she could to the surface of the eye, and the 
same instant the sparkle of iron flew out toward 
the loadstone, and the patient found himself 
instantly relieved. Fabricius's wife, as may be 
well guessed, did not remain mute upon the 
occasion. She received the testimonies of the 
peasant's gratitude ; but what undoubtedly flat- 
tered her most was her husband's acknowledg- 
ing that, had it not been for her, he should not 
have had the least idea of so fortunate a resource. 


A lady, aged 26, had her appetite so morbidly 
increased that she took three or four pounds of 
meat at a meal, exclusive of bread and vegeta- 
bles. She commonly vomited after each meal, 


and the ejecta were mixed with a glairy, albumi- 
nous, and sourish substance. Many physicians 
were consulted, and much medicine taken with- 
out the least effect. A continued fever at length 
supervened, and produced a complete disrelish 
for food ; but, as soon as it subsided, the 
boulimia returned as violent as ever. 

Dr. Crane inferred from this that there was 
a peculiar irritability of stomach, which was 
increased by food. He therefore tried, but with 
no success, to confine the patient to liquid 
aliment, of a mild nature, such as milk and 
arrow-root. He next tried soups and nutritive 
cnemata. This was more effectual, and he gra-^ 
dually allowed bread and other solid food. In 
six weeks the appetite became natural, and has 
now continued so for nine years. 

Boulimia is often caused by organic malfor- 
mations. M. Landre-Beauvais gives a case of 
a phthisical patient who had been boulimious all 
his life ; he died ; and, on dissection, it was 
found that he had no gall-bladder, and that the 
duodenum adhered to the liver. The intestines 
were unnaturally voluminous. 

Hufeland's Journ. Sf Diet, de Med. 


In the year 1810, a poor woman of the name 
of Charles was delivered of male twins ; but, 
being of a weakly constitution, and unable to 


suckle them both, she applied one of them to 
the tareast of his grandmother, aged 65 years, 
and in the 29th year of her widowhood. It was 
' great cry and little wool' with the poor boy 
for the first few days, but, afterwards, the milk 
came kindly and copiously for twenty-two 
months, and this boy became the stronger of 
the two.* This is on the assertion of Dr. Mon- 
tegre, who has published the circumstance in 
the Gazette de Saute. 


The unfortunate Gilbert, a young poet, who, 
by his eloquent Satire of the " Eighteenth Cen- 
tury," promised to prove a second Boileau, hav- 
ing become insane, swallowed a key, five inches 
and a half in length. He spoke clearly,, respired 
easily, and complained of no pain in his throat, 
only had some difficulty of swallowing. He 
frequently however repeated, though with an 
ironical smile, * that the key was in his throat. 
He was taken to the Hotel-Dieu, where he was 
examined, but nothing extraordinary could be 
detected by the surgeons. Nevertheless he died. 
On examining the body, the key was found in 

• This would have gladdened the heart of Johanna 
Southcote and her proselytes, as, in all probability, young 
Shiloh would not have required a wet-nurse, but would 
have drunk from the lactiferous fountains of its holy 

MEDICAL MEN. 13. ( > 

the oesophagus, the ring-end downwards, and 
the other end hooked on the arytenoid cartilage.* 


Dr. Petit, a physician of high reputation and 
ample fortune, at Paris, built a handsome house, 
at Orleans, his native city, to serve as a dispen- 
sary to the poor; and, not content thus to afford 
them medical assistance gratis, he extended his 
benevolent care to their property. To defend 
it from the attack of oppression, he appointed 
lawyers, who had a salary allowed them, to 
plead the cause of the indigent. 

This public benefactor to his native city, was 
the son of a tailor; and, in order to shew that 
he was superior to the prejudices which had so 
long enslaved his countrymen, he appointed the 
oldest tailor at Orleans, in indigent circum- 
stances, to take care of this new institution. He 
felt, perhaps, that, having arrived at eminence, 
by a path the most honorable of all others — that 
of distinguished talents, — he might be allowed to 
recollect, without blushing, the lowness of his 
birth. What are we to admire most — the bene- 

» It is not improbable that, during the height of a pa- 
roxysm, the unfortunate poet swajlowed the key with the 
intention of opening his chest. 


volence, or the modesty, (or rather) the magna- 
nimity of this truly noble character? 


The practice of blood-letting has been regard- 
ed as one of the most valuable means, for the 
subduction of disease, from that remote period, 
when the desire of relieving pain having first 
propelled man in search of the agents for miti- 
gating corporal sufferings, at length led to the 
cultivation of medical knowledge, by the sages 
of antiquity, whose sagacity and wisdom placed 
the healing art in a conspicuous rank amidst 
scientific researches. 

At what period the practice actually com- 
menced, we are totally ignorant; but we find 
an operator, (and he is the first who is posi- 
tively known to have performed venesection,) 
in the person of Podalirius, one of the warriors 
engaged in the celebrated contest of the Greeks 
and Trojans ; and who practiced surgery at the 
same time in the Grecian camp ; yet, remote as 
this period is, it is to be presumed that the ope- 
ration had been performed even antecedent to 
that time. 

It appears, however, that even Hippocrates 
was quite unacquainted with the use to which 
we now so contantly subject the worms called 
leeches; and yet it is stated, says Dr. Rees, 


by a late writer,* that Hippocrates made use of 
them in his practice, frequently conjoining them 
with the use of an exhausted cup, to elicit a 
farther discharge of blood, after they were 
removed ; but this, I believe, is a mistake, as 
the works of Hippocrates do not make any 
mention of it; nor does any author appear to 
be acquainted with leeching down to the time 
of Themison. The latter, who resided at Lao- 
dicea, was a pupil of Asclepiades, and the pre- 
decessor of Celsus; and is the first author we 
find who treats of their medicinal use ; and, it 
being often his practice to apply an exhausted 
cup over the bites of leeches, the mistake may 
have arisen, in the work before alluded to, of 
ascribing to Hippocrates what belonged to The- 
mison; and from the writings, therefore, which 
have been left us, we may venture to assert, that 
Themison was the first who applied leeches to 
the body as instruments of bleeding. 

The reputation which Themison possessed for 
great talent and judgment, was a sufficient 
inducement to others to try the success of the 
practice; and the leech, consequently, soon came 
into general estimation in that part of the world. 
Even the opponents of Themison, amongst 
whom was Galen, (whose learning and wisdom 

* Mapleson on CuppiDg. 


were so eminent, that his opinions gave laws to 
medical science over three-quartets of the globe, 
during a space of 1300 years,) were convinced 
of its utility, and sanctioned its use, as appears 
by the works of the latter, in which he has in- 
troduced the subject; thus presenting a libera- 
lity but too seldom recorded in the annals of 
modern medicine ; for, though Galen was most 
strenuously opposed to the opinions and prac- 
tice of the methodic sect, yet, he did not hesi- 
tate to adopt, and recommend, such corrective 
measures as he found actually useful, even' 
though introduced by Themison. 

From the time of Themison, we find Roman, 
Grecian, and Arabian physicians and authors, 
speaking highly in favour of leeches; and the 
illustrious name of Pliny adds much force to 
such recommendation. Antyllus, also, another 
celebrated physician of the first years of the' 
Christian era, was much in the habit of direct- 
ing local bleeding, by scarification and cup- 
ping; but, in all cases where this could riot be 
conveniently done, he advised the application 
of leeches. Thenemachus, a physician, and 
strenuous in support of the doctrines and prac- 
tice of Themison, followed the steps of his pre- 
decessor, in his partiality for leeching; and his 
writings contain various observations on his 
successful practice of it. 


Since the introduction of the leech, in the 
reign of Augustus Csesar, it has remained in 
universal request, both by the ancients and 
moderns. Greece, Italy, and Arabia are now 
no longer the confined sphere of its medicinal 
action; and to the names of Themison, Celsus, 
Antyllus, Pliny, Galen, Aretus, Oribasius,iEtius, 
jEgenetus, Avicenna, &c. are now to be added 
those of the most celebrated of modern times, 
whose experience and practice have established 
its value. And yet leeching has never obtained, 
in England, the free and almost unlimited ex- 
tension as on the continent; and it is even a 
matter of reproach, that our partiality for the 
lancet has thrown, into some degree of neglect, 
this sometimes useful auxiliary to depletory 


A trial came on at York lately, in which a 
surgeon-apothecary sued the head of a family, 
all of whom he had cured of the itch. The whole 
bill only amounted to five or six pounds. The 
plaintiff was proved to be a regular surgeon, 
and had been in practice for some years pre- 
vious to 1814; but, in that year, he had em- 
barked on board a vessel as surgeon. He was, 
consequently, not practising on terra-firma on 
the first day of August, 1815. He returned 


after the act was passed, and it was in his sub- 
sequent practice that the subject of dispute 
arose. He was non-suited because he was not 
actually practising on the identical day on which 
the act became law ! ! We consider this as a 
most disgraceful quibble, subversive of justice, 
and, in fact, contrary both to the letter and spi- 
rit of the act itself, which says, — " in practice 
as an apothecary prior to, or on the said first 
day of August, 1815." If it had been " prior 
to and on the day" in question, it would have 
been a different thing. 

Med. Chirurg. Rev. June, 1824. 


The history of the potatoe is most extra- 
ordinary, and strikingly illustrative of the im- 
perious influence of authority. In fact, the 
introduction of this valuable plant received, for 
more than two centuries, an unprecedented 
opposition, from vulgar prejudice, which all 
the philosophy of the age was unable to dissi- 
pate, until Louis XV. wore a bunch of the flow- 
ers of the potatoe in the midst of his court, on 
a day of mirth and festivity. The people then, 
for the first time, obsequiously acknowledged 
its utility, and began to express their astonish- 
ment at the apathy which had so long prevailed 
with regard to its general cultivation. 

mkdical mi:n. 145 

law respecting foeticide. 

We know, as all the world does, that " d6c- 
tors differ," and we fear that lawyers find it 
necessary so to do also. A ease was tried, 
where it was alleged that savine had been ad- 
ministered to a pregnant woman, for the pur- 
pose of procuring abortion. It was urged in 
behalf of the prisoner, that the substance given 
was not savine. Upon this it was ruled, that 
it did not signify what the substance was, or 
what powers it possessed, nor whether the 
woman to whom it was administered was actually 
with child or not ; provided the substance was, 
in the prisoner's opinion, capable of producing 
the intended effect, his guilt was the same. 
This was a close application of the Ellenbo- 
rough " intent " act ; but it so happened that 
the prisoner, in this case, had administered an 
innocuous draught, with the " intent" of 
amusing the female, who seemed to be in so 
desperate a frame of mind as to be bent on 
self-destruction. The prisoner in this case was 

The statute now in force expressly declares, 
tbat " the administration of any thing whatever, 
with the intent to cause the miscarriage of a 
woman," constitutes the offence, in whichsoever 
of the two degrees of criminality that are as- 



signed to it, with reference to the period of 
quickening, it may be committed. 

In 1824, a most depraved character appeared 
at the Old Bailey as a witness against her own 
paramour, for having, by her own desire, and 
in pursuance of her own instructions, procured 
savine for her in a third illegitimate pregnancy. 
The wretch explained the manner in which she 
came to the knowledge and experience of the 
supposed powers of this drug, and how she had, 
in the present instance, used it, though without 
effect. Upon this the presiding judge stopped 
the prosecution, on the ground that the emme- 
nagogue resorted to was not proved to possess 
the powers imputed to it. We confess that it 
would have had the appearance of scandal to 
British justice, had the man accused been 
found guilty from the evidence of the greater 
miscreant of the two ; but we must also confess 
that we should like, not for the sake of curiosity, 
to know what is the meaning of the statute on 
this point ; for it has a very close reference to 
the performance of some of our duties. 

Met}. Journal, 1824. 


It is very remarkable, that, at Aleppo, in 
Syria, a disorder prevails, called the Aleppo 
disease, which is common to both sexes, and 


which attacks natives as well as foreigners. It 
appears in a kind of boil, which breaks out in 
various parts of the body, and which, at the 
end of the year, suppurates and then heals 
without any other inconvenience than leaving a 
scar in the place where it was. For a long 
time this disease was attributed to the subtility of 
the air of Aleppo ; but late observations have 
induced some to believe that it is occasioned 
rather by the water. I have known people, 
who, during their residence here, never drank 
water till it had been boiled, remain free from 
this distemper. Others, who pursued a differ- 
ent conduct, though they staid in the city only 
a few days, were attacked by this disease even 
a year after. This malady is announced by a 
fever; and the method of cure is very simple. 
Nothing more is necessary than to lay an ivy- 
leaf, with a little cerate spread upon it, over 
the tumour, and this brings, it to a suppuration 
in the course of a year. No particular regiroen 
is required ; and when a cure is effected, the 
body 'generally enjoys good health for a long 
time after. — Maritis Travels. 


Among the Polish prisoners of war who were 
in Russia in 1661, was a distinguished noble- 
man, with whom nobody was allowed to speak 
L 2 


without witnesses. This man became ill, and 
applied for a physician, which the Czar granted. 
The physician prescribed Cremor Tartari. The 
doctor had scarcely got home, when he was 
arrested and carried before the minister, who, 
as soon as he entered, addressed him very 
angrily, calling him a traitor, threatening the 
severest punishments, exclaiming, " You dog, 
what have you been talking to the Pole about 
the Crim Tartars?" The doctor, who stood 
motionless with astonishment, now compre- 
hended the misunderstanding arising from the 
report made by some listeners to the minister, 
and explained it by shewing the prescription 
which he had left with the patient. 

Hist, de Warsaw. 


Passing by the famous Bijoux, who lived at 
the Royal Menagerie, and amused himself in 
classing animals by the forms of their excre- 
ments, we come to a singular personage, well 
known in Paris, where he died a few years ago, 
and who was named Tarrare. This man's voracity 
would stagger all belief, were not the truth of 
the circumstances guaranteed by the most un- 
questionable testimonies, among which it is only 
necessary to mention Professor Baron Percy. 
At 17 years of age Tarrare weighed only one. 


hundred pounds, and yet he could devour, in 
the space of twenty-four hours, a quarter of 
beef as heavy as his body ? At the commence- 
ment of the revolutionary war he entered the 
army, but here he was so scantily supplied with 
food, that he soon fell ill, and was conducted 
to the military hospital at Soultz. On the day 
of his entrance he got four rations, which 
only serving to whet his appetite, he devoured 
every kind of refuse victuals in the ward, then 
searched the kitchen, dispensary, &c. devouring 
every thing, even the poultices, that came in 
his way ! Tn the presence of the chief physician 
of the army, Doctor Lorence, he ate a live cat 
in a few seconds, leaving nothing but the 
larger bones ! In a few minutes, he devoured a 
dinner prepared for fifteen German labourers, 
and composed of various substantial dishes. 
After this tiffin, his belly appeared like a small 
balloon! As the French in those days turned 
every thing to account, the commander-in-chief 
had him brought before him, and after treating 
him with thirty pounds of liver and lights, he 
caused him to swallow a small wooden case, in 
which was enclosed a letter to a French officer, 
then in the hands of the enemy. Tarrare set 
off, was taken prisoner, beaten and confined. 
He passed by stool the case with the letter, 
before he eould see the officer, but immediately 


swallowed it again, to prevent its falling into 
the hands of the enemy. In another hospital 
where he was confined, the nurses frequently 
detected him drinking the blood which had 
been drawn from the sick ; and when all other 
sources failed, he repaired to the dead-house and 
satisfied his frightful appetite on human flesh! 
At length a child of fourteen months old dis- 
appeared all at once, and suspicions falling on 
Tarrare, he also disappeared for four years, 
when he was recognized again in the civil hos- 
pital of Paris, where he ended his miserable 
career. Tarrare's voracity far exceeded that of 
the French prisoner taken \u the Hoche last 
war, and whose gluttony is attested by the 
late Dr. Johnstone. Indeed Tarrare seems to 
have realized the fable of Erisichthon, who, 
according to the poet, devoured what would 
have supported a whole town — a whole people : 

■ " Quod urbibus esse, 

Quodque satis poterat populo." — Ovid. Met. Fab. 18. 
Diet. destjSciences Medicates: Art. cas rares. 


In a case of phthisis, Hufeland prescribed 
eight drops of prussic acid in eight ounces of 
water and two ounces of syrup, of which mix- 
ture the patient took a table spoonful every two 


hours. Scarcely was the second spoonful 
taken, when all the symptoms of paralysis of 
the lungs supervened, and the patient died in 
about six hours. In a second case, a negro, at 
the commencement of a phthisical affection, 
had three spoonfuls a day of a mixture of two 
drachms of prussic acid in eight ounces of 
water. On the second day, he became very 
weak ; on the third, still more so ; and on the 
fourth he died, with all the symptoms of a total 
loss of sensibility. M. Hufeland thinks thnt 
these two cases ought rather to put practiti- 
oners on their guard than deter them from using 
this powerful medicine. He promises a work 
in a short time, in which he will give the result 
of his observations and experiments with the 
acid for two years ; stating its advantages and 
disadvantages in the treatment of various dis- 
eases. — Journal der praktischen Heilkunde. 


The Regius Professor of Physic at the Univer- 
sity of Oxford died lately in that city. He was 
a man much esteemed, though the honours of 
knighthood, which he enjoyed, were sometimes 
the theme of College jest. We remember one 
instance: when it was asserted that Sir Chris- 
topher was absolutely taken ill in consequence 
of chagrin at his tailor, the mayor, being raised 


to the same dignity on presenting a loyal ad- 
dress. Some one asked, " Why, what is the 
matter with Sir Christopher Pegge ?" To which 
a wit replied, " Oh, sir, he is quite sick of the 
(K) night mare .'" Dr. Kidd is his successor. 


M. A. Desmoulins has laid before the Insti- 
tute a paper, on this subject, in which he has 
come to the following important conclusions : — 

1st. That there is not in yellow fever any 
increased secretion of bile/ 2d. That both the 
black coloured substances vomited and evacu- 
ated per anum, are exhalations from the coats 
of the intestines. 3d. That the yellow- colour 
of the skin takes its rise from an- elaboration of 
the blood, in the corpus mucosum of the skin, 
in which a sanguineous congestion is established 
by a determination, simultaneous with, and aua- 
lagous to, that which produces the haemorrhage 
from the mucus membrane of the intestines. 
4. That the more dense structure of the cutis 
is the only reason why haemorrhage does not 
take place from it. 5th. That the yellow ; tinge 
of the skin is merely a species of ecchymosis. 
6th. In a word, that the yellow fever is nothing 
else than a determination of blood to the skin 
and mucus membranes, the effects of which are 


diversified on these surfaces by the different 
degrees of the intensity of the determination 
combined with the unequal permeability of the 

These different propositions are supported by 
a number of ingenious, and, in many cases, 
conclusive arguments, of which our limits will 
only admit an outline. In several cases where 
the black vomit had occurred, the stomach, 
after death, was found filled with the same 
matter, while the pylorus was entirely ob- 
structed by schirrus, proving that water could 
not come from the liver; nay, Dr. Firth dis- 
covered this dark substance completely formed 
in the arteries of the stomach. Authenrieth, 
and several others, have observed the serum to be 
yellow in diseases free from any biliary compli- 
cation ; in the bodies of children, who were born 
with the yellow gum, no indications of hepatic 
disease could be discovered ; nor, in a case of 
this kind, examined by M. Lassaigne, could the 
least trace of bile, or of any of its elements, 
be found either in the serum or the fibrine, or in 
the coloured particles of the blood. Some old 
men have become yellow, and yet enjoyed good 
health ; and some nations have a permanent 
yellow tinge. This colour cannot, therefore, 
in all cases be the effect of bile; and, in the 
yellow fever, is most probably owing to the 


elaboration of the blood in the corpus mucosum 

In conclusion, M. Desmoulins thinks he can 
perceive a conformity of the symptoms of yellow 
fever with those in the diseases produced in 
dogs, in the experiments of M. Gaspard, by the 
transmission into their veins of the foetid juice 
of fermented cabbages. ' This resemblance he 
traces still farther, viz. to the symptoms on dis- 
section, and from thence is led to deduce a 
similarity of origin in both diseases, namely, 
the introduction of putrid substances into the 
mass of blood. This analogy of symptoms and 
origin, of course, extends not only to yellow 
fever, but to typhus, to intermittents from ma- 
laria, and to all diseases supposed to take their 
origin from putrid exhalations. 

Magendie's Journ. de Physiologie. 


A gentleman is now living in Paris, in the 
50th year of his age, whose intellectual facul- 
ties are of the first order, and who is intimately 
conversant in every species of literature. His 
style is so elegant that he is the delight of his 
readers, while his critical acumen is dreaded 
by every author of mediocrity, whose works 
come under his censorial lash. His person is 
tall and meagre, his complexion pale and 

MI-D1CAL MEN. 165 

bilious. He may be said to sieep none — at 
least, he does not sleep more than a quarter of 
an hour in the course of the night. When he 
sleeps four or five hours, it is the certain fore- 
runner of a fit of sickness, which never fails 
to assail him in the course of twenty-four hours 
after this unusual drowsiness. He never passes 
a stool oftener than once in twenty-five or 
thirty days, and that by the aid of glysters. 
Purgatives have no effect on the stomach or 
bowels ; his excrements are like little stones, 
in the form of sheep or deer's dung. He has 
no appetite, and eats very little. When ill, he 
does not eat any thing for a month together, 
living entirely on drink. He takes great exer- 
cise, walking sometimes above three hundred 
miles, almost without resting; and it is at these 
times that he enjoys the best health. He is 
highly irascible on the least contradiction, but 
the goodness of his heart always remains. 

Diet, des Sciences Medicates. 


In the memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences in France, for 1709, we find a butcher's 
wife, of Aix, lying-in of nine children. 

According to Macedo, the Portuguese are 
not slack in obeying the divine injunction — 
"increase and multiply;" Blanca de Rocha, 


the wife of Rodrigo Monteno, had fourteen 
children at a birth, who were all baptized. 
Maria Marcella had seven at a birth, who 
all entered the church, an ungrateful return to 
such a mother, since they were condemned to 

In Captain Tombe's Voyages aux Indes Ori- 
entates, torn. 2, p. 45, we find an old Chinese 
chief of Bangelt telling him, that, " one of his 
wives was then pregnant of her sixty-first child, 
of which twenty -nine were dead, and thirty-one 
living !" 

Petrus Borellus, in his second century of 
observations, tells us, that, in the year 1650, 
the lady of the then Lord Darre produced, at 
one birth, eight perfect children. 

These are marvellous instances of fecundity; 
but the largest in point of number, is that of 
the Countess of Henneberg, recorded upon a 
marble tablet, in the church of Lansdunen, near 
Leyden, in Holland. 

These two verses are engraven at top — 

En tibi monstrosum nimis, et memorabile factum, 
Quale nee a mundi conditione datum. 

After which follows a prose account of the 
miracle, for such it is in truth ; and ought to 
have the same credence given to it as other 

MUD1CAI, MEN. 157 

Margaret, the wife of Hennam, Earl of Hen- 
neberg, and daughter of Florence, the fourth 
Earl of Holland and Zealand, sister of William, 
King of Rome, and afterwards Ceesar, or gover- 
nor of the empire, and of Alithea, Countess of 
Henault, whose uncle was the Bishop of 
Utrecht, and cousin to the Duke of Brabant, 
and the Earl of Thuringia, &c. This noble 
countess, being about forty years of age, upon 
Easter day, and about nine o'clock, in the year 
of our Lord 1276, was brought to bed of 365 
children, all which were baptized in two brazen 
basins, by Guido, the suffragan of Utrecht : 
the males, how many soever there were of them, 
were christened by the name of John ; the 
daughters were all named Elizabeth ; who all, 
together with their mother, died the same day, 
and, with their mother, lie buried in this church 
of Landunen. This happened by means of a 
poor woman, who carried in her arms two 
children, who were twins, and both of them 
males, which the countess admiring, said that 
she could not have them by one father, and so 
shook her off in contempt and scorn. Where- 
upon this poor woman, being much perplexed 
in her mind, presently prayed to God, to send 
her as many children as there were days in the 
whole year : which thing, beside the course of 
nature, in a stupendous and wonderful manner, 


came to pass, as it is briefly set down and 
declared in this table, for perpetual memory, 
testified as well by ancient manuscripts, as by 
many printed chronicles. The Almighty and 
great God of heaven hereupon be feared, ho- 
noured, and praised, from this time forth ever- 
more. Amen." 


The history of the warm-bath furnishes us with 
another curious instance of the vicissitudes to 
which the reputation of our valuable resources 
are so uniformly exposed : that, in short, 
which for so many ages was esteemed the great- 
est luxury in health, so that the prohibition 
of the bath was numbered among those to 
which certain priestesses were bound by the 
rigid rules of their order; and it was also 
considered as the most efficacious remedy in 
diseases, fell into total disrepute in the reign 
of Augustus, for no other reason than because 
Antonius Musa had cured the emperor of a dan- 
gerous malady by the use of the cold-bath. The 
coldest water, therefore, was recommended on 
every occasion. This practice, however, was 
but of short duration; the popularity of the 
cold-bath soon lost all its premature and pre- 
cocious popularity; for, though it had restored 
the emperor to health, it, shortly afterwards, 


killed his nephew and son-in-law, Marcellus ; 
an event which, at once, deprived the remedy 
of its credit, and the physician of his popularity. 


Boerhaave takes notice that, before there were 
any professed physicians, it was the custom 
among the ancient Egyptians, when any one 
was sick, to enquire of neighbours and passen- 
gers if they knew any proper remedies for the 
patient. But ever since the study of physic has 
been a profession, it has been both honourable 
and lucrative. The customary yearly salary, 
which princes paid their physicians, about the 
time of Christ's birth, was 250 sestertia, or 
above 2018/. sterling. Stertenius complained, 
that he had only a salary of 500 sestertia, or 
4036/. 9s 2d. sterling, when he had, by his pri- 
vate practice, 600 sestertia, or 4843/. 15s.* 


It is proper to give a just tribute to skill in 
science whenever and wherever it occurs. We 
first turn to Russia. — " A young Russian noble- 
man, of the name of Buterline, was, in a skir- 

• Vide Dr. Arbuthnot's book on Coin, and Mr. William 
.Smith's book of Remarks on the same subject, p. 226. 


mish witkr-the Tartars,' wounded so cruelly, that 
a portion of the scalp, scull and all, was carried 
away by a stroke of the sabre. The surgeon 
having killed a dog, cut out a portion of his 
scull, corresponding with that which, in this 
nobleman, had been cut off with the sabre, 
nitched it into the wound, and achieved a per- 
fect cure. The nobleman, exulting in this 
miraculous operation, told it to his friends, 
and his friends told -it to the priests, and 
the priests told it to the archbishop of Mos- 
cow, and the archbishop of Moscow put him 
under the ban of the church, from which he was 
driven forth, for having this fragment of a bestial 
body united with his, and banished from the 
assemblies of the faithful all over the Russian 
empire, so long as the said piece of dog's scull 
remained united and joined into the head of a 
Christian man." — (John Bell's Principles of Sur- 
gery, vol. 2, p. 332.) It is proper to add, that 
the offending part was afterwards removed, and 
the sentence of excommunication revoked. 

Sir Robert Wilson, in his pamphlet on the 
" Composition of the Russian Army," p. 53, 
speaking of wounded men having their wounds 
dressed on the field of battle, adds, " It must 
also be stated, that, the care of grievously- 
wounded men, so as to be disabled from future 
service, has never, till lately, been in the policy 


of the Russian government; for the finances of 
«mpire did not admit of this burthen ; and, even 
at Friedland, it was remarked, by an officer of 
high rank, and of most humane character, that 
a cannon-ball was the best doctor for men with- 
out limbs." 


An astonishing surgical operation was lately 
performed with success in the hospital of St. 
Louis, at Paris. A peasant of the neighbour- 
hood of La Fere, was persuaded that about 
five years ago he had swallowed with his food 
some reptile, which, in an inexplicable manner, 
still lived, as he affirmed, in his stomach. The 
physicians employed various prescriptions with- 
out effect. Tortured by excruciating pains, 
the unhappy man resolved to go to Paris, to 
be opened ; which operation was in fact per- 
formed hy making an incision just below the 
region of the heart, when it was ascertained 
that his conjecture was well founded. As soon 
as the animal perceived more air than it was 
accustomed to, it shewed itself at the end of 
the incision, but immediately drew back ; when 
one of the assistants put his finger into the 
wound, and drew out a snake two feet and a 
half in length, and eighteen lines in circum- 
ference. It lived sixty hours. The patient 



felt gr^at *elief, and is in a situation which 
gives no reason to apprehen dany bad conse- 
quences'! ! — Foreign Journal. 


The junction of technical law with subjects 
peculiar to the medical profession, in the vo- 
luminous and expensive work of Dt. Paris 
arid Mr. *Fonblanqae, has given rise to some 
dmenfesTtm about its utility. There can be no 
qcrefctio*) about its tending to enlarge the sphere 
of*ktftwle«dge, a*rd complete the reia'ti&n of facts 
and ^principles ; but, whether it is alt all neces- 
sary, -efeiSpt as a matter of literary or curious 
iirqeiry, for a medical man to know the teehni- 
caMties sftf 'law, We think is satisfactorily an- 
swered by Dr. Smith. 

In '-die 'Courts of Great Britain, he justly 
says, tfre physician appears, for the most part, 
in the simple capacity of a witness. He is 
•g&ftteratiy examined vitod voce, either as to bis 
knowledge of a -particular event, or his opinion 
on a fact that may be -submitted to him ; and 
to this exposure every member of *the profession 
is equally liable. Ho is required to prepare 
himself by n"o course of study foreign to that of 
his proper profession ; and to dbSerfe tto for- 
malities but those of prudence and decorum. 


Juridical disputation, and legal casuistry, can 
hardly combine with medical reasoning 1 , or iUirs- 
trate the laws of our physical economy. It is 
the prudenticB medicina, rather than the pru- 
denticB juris, that we are bound to cultivate, 
even with a view to forensic application. 


Oporinus was, for some time, a servant and 
amanuensis to the famous Paracelsus. He was 
a person of much learning, well skilled in tsbe 
Greek and Latin tongues ; and, being possessed 
with the vain expectation of attaining Para- 
celsus's secrets, left his own family and tra- 
velled about with him two whole years, without 
learning any one thing; till, wearied out, he 
grew wise, and quitting Paracelsus returned to 
Basil. It happened, one evening, that Para- 
celsus was called to visit a countryman dan- 
gerously ill, near Colmar, in Alsatia; but, 
being set in for a drinking-bout, with ordinary 
company, he deferred visiting the patient till 
next morning ; when entering the house, with 
a furious look, Paracelsus .asked if the sick 
person had taken any physie ? intending to 
administer some of his laudanum. The by- 
standers answered, he had taken uothisg 4>ut 
the sacrament, being at the point of 4©ath. 
At this, Paracelsus, in a rage, replied* ii kt 
M 2 


bas had recourse to another physician, he ha* 
no occasion for me; and ran immediately out 
of doors. Oporinus, struck with this piece of 
impiety, bid Paracelsus the last adieu ; fearing; 
the barbarity of his otherwise loved master 
should some time fall on his own head. — s. 


Puring the reign of this monarch, medical 
science was in a state of progressive, but not 
rapid improvement. It was reserved for the 
next reign to display the full lustre of Harvey's 
career. The principal physicians of the pre- 
sent period were Richard Bannister, Mathew 
Gwinne, Philemon Holland, Theodore Goulston, 
Edward Jorden, Sir Theodore de Mayeine, 
Robert Fludd, Thomas Winston, and Tobias, 


This is no fable, as we shall presently show : 
to be sure, the more important part, viz. the 
delivery, is really performed by ladies ; but the 
posthumous ceremonial of lying-in, of being 
attended, the caudle-administering, &c. &c. are 
performed by gentlemen. We have Paul Colo- 
mies' (a Frenchman, and some time librarian 
at Lambeth-palace here) authority, in stating 


that, at Bearne, a province of France, when the 
wife was brought to bed, the woman arose, and 
her husband succeeded to her place, and to all 
the ceremonies attending that situation. " I 
imagine, (he says,) that the people of Bearne 
received this custom from the Spaniards, of 
whom Strabo, in his 3d book of Geography, 
p. 114, relates the same usage." The same 
ridiculous farce was acted among the Tiba- 
renians, (a people of Themiscyra, in Cappa- 
docia; Pliny, 6,4, et Dionysius, 766,) accord- 
ing to Nymphodorus, in his Scholia on Apol- 
lonius Rhodius, Book 2; and among the Tar- 
tars, as Marco Paulo, the Venetian, relates, 
Rook 2, Chap. 41, whose voyages are no longer 
considered fabulous. Besides, all travellers in 
America agree in speaking of this ridiculous 
custom prevailing in the country of Darien. 
When a woman was safely delivered, she soon 
rose to attend to the affairs of the household ; 
while the husband himself went to bed, and 
the neighbours hastened to visit, and to comfort 
him. — Diodorus Siculus, in the 14th chapter of 
his 5th Book, affirms, that the Corsican women, 
as soon as delivered, quitted their beds to their 
husbands, who lay in their stead. 

This practice of gentlemen lying in bed, 
instead of their ladies, is attended, however, 
by certain fasts and mortifications, by which 


they are self-inflicted ; every English lady will 
rejoice to hear that. — Again, it appears, accord- 
ing to M. De Pauw and M. Fischer, among the 
old Spaniards, Corsicans, and some Mongolian 
races that Marco Paulo met with, and also at 
Bearfte, it was $ie practice for husbands to 
take to bed, instead of theft- wives, and to be 
attended accordingly. Some authors think that 
this practice arose from a superstitious idea, 
that it would have a beneficial effect on the 
life of the child. 


Vertigo, which is connected with apoplexy, 
is obedient to the influence of the moon, as well 
as the paroxysms of phrenzy to which maniacs 
are liable. Mead asserts, that the changes of 
the moon have considerable influence on hydro- 
phobia, and gives several examples of persons 
bitten by mad dogs, who were always attacked 
with uneasy feelings about the full of the moon. 
Talpius and Piso give examples of partial para- 
lyses, the attacks of which were coincident with 
the lunar phases. 

Every body is aware of the connection of the 
sexual evacuations with the lunar influence. 
A careful observer may remark, that females 
of the human species may be divided into two 
great classes; one of which alters at the full, 


aud the other at the change of the motux. 
There are, indeed, some exceptions*. l» c«un- 
tries nearer the equator, these evacuations are 
more profuse than towards the poles. But it 
is known, that the influence of the moan is. very 
powerful at the equator, and gradually subsides 
on approaching the poles. This fact did *ot 
escape Hippocrates, and he makes use of it «o 
explain, the sterility of the women of Scythia. 
The examples of the Malabar womea may be 
cited in proof; they are generally fit to become 
mothers at twelve years of age ; and, in fact, 
frequently have children at that early period oi 
their lives. 

Kiiklaod has observed, that parturition in 
women, as well as in the females of all animals, 
takes place when the moan is south ; that 
scores of sheep will then bring forth in an 
hour : and if labour does not take place in 
women about that period, the pains gradually 
subside, and parturition does not take place till 
the lapse of twenty-four houra. 

The women of Angola have a ridiculous cus- 
tom of exposing their derrieres to the new moon, 
considering themselves as being under her 
special protection. 

Are not our own sex also occasionally affected 
with periodical haemorrhages connected with 
the phases of the moon ? Mead knew a young 


man of delicate habit, who brought on spitting 
of blood, by making an effort beyond hit 
strength, which, during eighteen months, regu- 
larly recurred with the full moon. — Two remark- 
able cases are given in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, (Nos. 171 and 272.) The first is that 
of a young man, who, from his childhood till 
the 25th year of his age, discharged a small 
quantity of blood from the corner of the thumb- 
nail of his left hand every time the moon came 
to its full. The other is the case of an Irish- 
man, who, from the 53d to the 55th year of his- 
age, had a periodical evacuation of blood from 
the extremity of the forefinger of his right hand. 

Baglivi states the case of a student at Rome, 
who had a fistulous ulcer of the abdomen, which 
appeared to have some connection with the 
colon; and discharged so abundantly on the 
increase, and so little on the decrease of the 
moon, that it served him as a perfect index of 
the periods and quadratures of that planet. 
Nephritic attacks frequently follow the course 
of lunar attraction. Tulpius relates that Mr. 
Ainsworth, an English clergyman at Amster- 
dam, constantly suffered from an attack of 
gravel, accompanied with suppression of urine 
at the full of the moon, which continued till she 
had made some progress in waining. 

Van Helmont mentions this influence of the 

MKDICAL MF.If. 16.9 

moon on asthma ; and Sir John Floyer, who, 
from being personally afflicted with this dis- 
ease, had more occasion to attend to its pha-no- 
mena than most, people, asserts that paroxysms 
of asthma are always most severe at certain 
periods of the moon, and commonly recur with 
the change. 

Still more extraordinary effects are attributed 
to the lunar influence. The celebrated Kerck- 
ringius, in his Anatomical Observations, men- 
tions the case of a young lady who became 
plump and handsome with the increase of the 
moon, but who completely changed with the 
decrease of that planet. About the change she 
became so disfigured and haggard, that she 
secluded herself from all society for some days. 
Mead also refers to a lady whose countenance 
always developed itself with the increase of the 
moon, so that the eclat of her charms depended 
upon that planet. 

Since these observations were written, the 
subject of solunar influence has been treated at 
great length, and with much ingenuity, by Dr. 


Displayed his zeal, for the improvement of 
the science of medicine, by instituting, in the 
reign of King James I., an annual pathological 

170 ^E»*C1NE AND 

lecture, within the College of Physicians. " If 
institutions of this nature," says Dr. Aikin, 
" have hj the more improved state of medical 
education become less necessary, we are act 
the less obliged to those who founded them at 
a time th«y were more wanted." Dr. Goulston, 
likewise, published a Latin version of some of 
the works of Galen, accompanied with critical 
annotations. Like Dr. Gwinne, he was a pro- 
ficient in classical learning, as appeared from his 
translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics. 


Simorre (M. Percy relates the case) was born 
at Mirepoix in 1752. At the age of 15 he 
entered the army, and served twenty-one years 
in the regiment de Berry, where he arrived at 
the rank of captain. He had made the three 
campaigns of Corsica ; and it was there that the 
young Simorre contracted the germ of his future 
fatal malady. He had bivouacked a long time 
on the marshy banks of a river, where the 
atmosphere was constantly obscured by va- 
pours ; when he. all at once, was seized with 
laucinating pains in the great toes and ankles. 
These had no sooner ceased, than he was 
afflicted with a severe ophthalmia, which, how- 
ever, gave way in a short time. For several 


years the same succession of symptoms took 
place every spring, and without giving way to 
any medicine, terminated the same way. In 
course of time there was no interval of health ; 
as soon as the ophthalmia ceased the pains 
commenced, and vice versd. The pains spread 
from the feet to the knees, and even to the hips ; 
while his eye-sig-ht became daily weaker. In 
1785, Simorre could not walk without an 
assistant, who also served as a guide. The 
year following, every joint was affected syn- 
chronously, and anchylosis made alarming pro- 
gress through all the articulations. He was 
obliged to leave the service and retire to Metz. 
For a long time he bore up courageously 
against the ravages of disease : he felt his limbs 
becoming immoveable ; yet, deprived of the use 
of several members, he braved the most exqui- 
site suffering in attempts at motion ! The arms 
and head shared the same fate as the feet and 
knees. The whole body was rendered motion- 
less. The lower jaw submitted to the universal 
immobility ! Then Simorre, according to his 
own expression was only a living corpse ! 
Happy, says M. Percy, had been poor Simorre, 
if insensibility had been granted this living 
corpse ! But far from enjoying this sad repose, 
Simorre, who had already suffered so much, 
continued still the victim of the most exquisite 


tortures! He lay four months on a sofa, with- 
out being able to bear the removal to a bed. 
The attitude which he there preserved, has 
evidently determined that of the skeleton, as 
it now appears, because the various articulations 
then acquired a solidity that rendered them ever 
afterwards useless. This new change occa- 
sioned the unhappy Simorre the most horrible 
torments. The least motion, the most gentle 
touch, caused him to cry out with dreadful 
anguish. He never slept for one moment while 
on this sofa of sorrow ! At length he was moved 
into a bed ; but there he spent two years of 
misery without ever sleeping! The moment that 
he attempted to close his eyes, every member 
was agitated with the most painful convulsions, 
on which opium had no effect. In 1792 his 
joints, which had become enormously enlarged, 
were quite unwieldy ; and the articulating ex- 
tremities of the bones were so increased in 
volume as to approach each other, and leave no 
shaft ! From this time the excessive torments, 
which Simorre had borne with a firmness 
worthy of an ancient stoic, became much as- 
suaged, and he could bear to be moved without 
experiencing much pain. He was lifted off the 
bed once a month, like a rigid corpse, but care 
was taken not to touch the mould, as it were, 
in which he lay, otherwise he suffered tortures 


in forming a new one. Though freed from 
those excruciating torments which he had for- 
merly experienced, Simorre was still a sufferer. 
He never could sleep more than a quarter of an 
hour at a time ; yet he blessed his stars that he 
was no worse, and amused himself with cheer- 
ful discourses and lively songs ! During a great 
many years, he published an annual almanack 
of songs, composed by himself, and by the sale 
of which he supported himself in his state of 
misery ! His ballads breathe the spirit of gaiety ; 
and in them he often depicts himself in such a 
manner, as at the same moment to inspire mirth 
and commiseration ! 

Simorre had a good figure and a cheerful 
expressive countenance. His black and curled 
hair covered a large forehead, terminated by 
fine arched eyebrows. His nose was aquiline, 
his eyes sparkling. " This philosophical head 
(says M. Percy) contained the whole soul, the 
whole existence of Simorre !" This unfortunate 
officer terminated his career of earthly suffer- 
ings in 1802, aged 50 years. 

Diet, de Sciences Med. 


The chief source of the magical operations 
of the Mexican priests was an ointment com- 
posed of the fat of a variety of poisonous ani- 


oials, and some other ingredients, as resin, 
soot, and particularly an herb possessing the 
mischievous power of deranging the intellects. 
To prepare this ointment, they collect «. variety 
of venomous animals, which they hum before 
their idols. The cinders, beaten in -a mortar 
with tobacco and the poisonous ingredients 
already mentioned, constitute this wonderful 
ointment, which they entitle the food or nou- 
rishment of the gods ; by the use of this com- 
position, they pretend to obtain an intercourse 
with the demons, to be able to cure ail manner 
of diseases ; and even to tame lions, beare, and 
other ferocious animals. 

In the account given by the Abbe de la 
Port, of Ann Zinga, Queen of Angola, a bar- 
barous and ferocious princess, he says, being 
persuaded by one of her Saggas, or priests, 
that he knew how to compose a wonderful oint- 
ment of the flesh and bones of a male child 
beaten together in a mortar, which would giw» 
great strength and even render a person invul- 
nerable, she on one oocasion assembled thr 
people, and publicly slew a child two years old, 
which she had adopted ; beat the body in a 
mortar together with a certain powder, thus 
composing a mysterious ointment; and, strip- 
ping herself quite naked, she anointed her [body 
with this horrible composition. 


Among other singular reptiles found in 
China, there is a species of lizard, termed " the 
dragon of the wall," because it can creep up 
the most polished walls ; otherwise, " the 
palace guard," or " ladies' guard," because, as 
they think, it has the effect of preserving their 
chastity, which it thus effects: — in Navarette's 
collection of voyages, it is stated, that the 
ftmperors of China are accustomed to rub the 
palms of the hands of their concubines with an 
ointment composed of the flesh of this lizard. 
The ointment imprints a mark, which i» inde- 
lible while they continue chaste, but which 
vanishes the moment they are guilty of any 
breach of their honour. Perhaps it may con- 
tribute to the domestic tranquillity of married 
people in these western countries, that our 
lizards are destitute of any such virtue. 


" Did Marcus say : twas fact? then fact it is, 
No proof so valid as a word of his." 

Devotion to authority and established routine, 
lias always been the means of opposing the pro- 
gress of reason, the advancement of natural 
truth, and the prosecutiou of new discoveries; 
whilst, with effects no less baneful, it has per- 
petuated many of the most stupendous errors. 

To give currency to some inactive substance, 


as possessing extraordinary, nay wonderful me- 
dicinal properties, requires only the sanction 
of a few great names; and, when established 
upon such a basis, ingenuity, argument, and 
even experiment, may open their impotent bat- 
teries. In this manner have all the nostra and 
patent-medicines got into repute that ever were 
held in any estimation. And the same devotion 
to authority, which induces us to retain an 
accustomed remedy, upon the bare assertion 
and presumption, either of ignorance or partia- 
lity, will, in like manner, oppose the introduc- 
tion of a novel practice with asperity; unless, 
indeed, it be supported by authorities of still 
greater weight and consideration. 


Was held in great reputation, during the 
reign of the pedantic James, for literature and 
abilities. He had a natural propensity to the 
studies of chemistry and mineralogy; and these 
were the foundation of the fame he acquired by 
his principal work a " Treatise on Baths and 
Mineral Waters." This is a work of consider- 
able learning and ingenuity, and is written in a 
clear and judicious method. Though much of 
it is extracted from other authors, Di . Jorden 
has not failed to add many things, which are 
peculiarly his own. 



" A long intense passion on one object," ob- 
serves an old navy-surgeon,* " whether of pride, 
love, anger, fear, or envy, we see have brought 
on some universal tremors ; on others convul- 
sions, madness, melaucholy, consumption, hec- 
tics, or such a chronical disorder as has wasted 
their flesh or their strength, as certainly as the 
taking in of any poisonous drugs would have 
done. Any thing frightful, sudden, and surpris- 
ing, upon soft timorous natures, not only shews 
itself in the countenance, but produces, some- 
times, very troublesome consequences ; for in- 
stance, a parliamentary fright will make even 
grown men bewray themselves, scare them out 
of their wits, and turn the hair grey. Surprise 
removes the hooping-cough ; looking from pre- 
cipices, or seeing wheels turn swiftly, gives gid- 
diness and other symptoms ; shall then these 
little accidents, or the passions, (from caprice or 
human weakness perhaps) produce those effects, 
and not be able to do any thing by amulets? No, 
as the spirits, in many cases, resort in plenty, 
we find, where the fancy determines, giving joy 
and gladness to the heart, strength and jfleetness 

* John Atkins, author of the Navy-Surgeon, 1742. 



to the limbs, lust or flagrancy to the eyes, pal- 
pitation and priapism; so amulets, under strong 
imagination, are carried, with more force, to a 
distempered part; and, under these circum- 
stances, its natural powers exert better to a 

" The cures compassed in this manner are 
not more admirable than many of the distempers 
themselves. Who can apprehend by what im- 
penetrable method the bite of a mad-dog* or 
tarantula should produce their symptoms ? The 
touch of the torpedo, numbness 1 Or a woman 
impress the marks of her longings and her 
frights on a foetus? If they are allowed to do 
these, doubtless they may the other; and, not 
by miracles, which Spinoza denies the possi- 
bility of, but by natural and regular causes, 
though inscrutable to us. 

" The best way, therefore, in using amulets, 
must be in squaring them to the imagination of 
patients ; let the newness and the surprise ex- 
ceed the invention, and keep up the humours 
by a long roll of cures and vouchers; by these, 
and such means, many distempers, especially 

* Turner, in his Collection of Cases, p. 406, gives one 
of a woman who died hydrophobical from a mad dog 
biting her gown; and of a young man who died raving 
mad, from ihe scratch of a cat, four years after the acci- 


of women, that are ill all over, or know not what 
they ail, have been cured, I am apt to think, 
more by a fancy to the physician than his pre- 
scription, which hangs on the file like an amulet. 
Quacks, again, according to their boldness and 
way of addressing (velvet and infallibility par- 
ticularly) command success by striking the fan- 
cies of an audience. If a few, more sensible 
than the rest, see the doctor's miscarriages, and 
are not easily gulled at first sight, yet, when 
they see a man is never ashamed, in time pimn 
in to his assistance." 

Our inability, upon all occasions, to appre- 
ciate the efforts of nature, in the cure of disease, 
must always render our notions, with respect 
to the powers of art, liable to numerous errors 
and multiplied deceptions. Nothing is more 
natural, and, at the same time, more erroneous, 
than to attribute the cure of a disease to the last 
medicine that had been employed; the advo- 
cates of amulets and charms have ever been 
thus enabled to appeal to the testimony of what 
they are pleased to call experience, in justifica- 
tion of their superstitions; and cases which, in 
truth, ought to have been considered lucky 
escapes, have been triumphantly puffed off as 
skilful cures ; and thus have medicines and 
practitioners alike acquired unmerited praise 
pr unjust censure. 

N ? 

180 MKlMCiNi: A.\» 


Who lived in the reign of James I., chiefly 
excelled in the knowledge and cure of the dis- 
eases of the eyes. The remarks which he 
made, in a treatise upon the subject, are the 
result of much experience, and shew him t© 
have been a good operator, and a careful ob- 


Ex* rotulis patentibus de anno jegni regis Henrioi tertfc 
48°. Membr. 5. 
Res omnibus, &c. salutem. Quia Jnetta de Balshmu 
pro receptamento latronum ei irnposito nuper per consi- 
derationem curie nostre suspendio adjudicata, et ab hora 
nona diei lune usque post ortum solis diei martis sequen : 
suspensa, viva evasit, sicut ex testimonio fide dignorum 
accipiinas. Nos, divinse charitatis intuitu, pardonavi- 
mus eidem Jnetta sectam pacis nostre que ad nos perfinet 
pro receptamento predicto et flrmam pacem nostram pi 
mde concedinius. In cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud Cah- 
taur. xvi°, die Augusti. 

Convenit cum recordo. 
Laur. Halsted, Deput. Algern. May. mil. 

• From the patent-rolls of the 48th year ©f the reign ot 
King Henry the Third. Skin 5. 

The King to all, &c. greeting. Whereas, Jnetta Bal- 
sham, for the receiving of thieves, proved upon her, was 
lately judged, by the consideration of our court, to be 
hanged, and being hung, remained alive from the nin'h 


Dr. Plot, in his Natural History of Stafford- 
shire, quotes this pardon, granted by Henry III. 
to Jnetta Balsham, and remarks, that possibly 
" she could not be hanged, upon account that 
the larynx, or upper part of her wind-pipe, was 
turned to bone, as Fallopius, (Oper. torn. I, Ohs. 
Anat. tract. 6) tells us he has sometimes found 
it, which possibly might be so strong, that the 
weight cf her body could not compress it, as it 
happened in the case of a Swiss, who, as I am 
told, by the Rev. Mr. Obadiah Walker, Master of 
University College, was attempted to be hanged 
no less than thirteen times, yet lived notwith- 
standing, by the benefit of his wind-pipe, that, 
after his death, was found to have turned to a 
bone; which yet is still wonderful, since the 
circulation of the blood must be stopt, however, 
unless his veins and arteries were likewise turn- 
ed to bone, or the rope not slipt close. 

Potts' Staffordshire, p. 292. 

hour on Monday, until after the rising of the sun on the 
following Tuesday, as has been related to us by persons 
worthy of credit. We, excited by divine mercy, pardon 
the said Jnetta, the suit of our peace, which appertains 
to us for the aforesaid reception, and, therefore, concede 
to her our firm peace. In testimony of which, &c. Wit- 
ness the King, at Canterbury, this 16th day of August. 
Agrees with the record, 
I>Aug. Halsted, Deputy to Sir AJgern. May. 



The collection of comparative anatomy which 
Mr. Hunter has left, and which may be consi- 
dered as the great object of his life, must be 
allowed to be a proof of talents, assiduity, and 
labour which cannot be contemplated without 
surprise and admiration. 

It remains an unequivocaltest of his perse- 
verance and abilities, and an honour to the 
country in whose schools he was educated, and 
by the patronage of which he was enabled, on 
so extensive a plan, to carry on his pursuits. 
In this collection we find an attempt to expose 
to view the gradations of nature, from the most 
simple state in which life is found to exist, up 
to the most perfect and most complex of the 
animal creation — man himself. By the powers 
of his art, this collector has been enabled to 
expose and preserve, in spirits or in a' dried 
state, the different parts of animal bodies in- 
tended for similar uses, that the various links 
of the chain of perfection are readily followed, 
and may be clearly understood. 

This class of anatomical facts is arranged 
according to the subjects they are intended to 
illustrate, which are placed in the following 
order: — First, parts constructed for motion. 
Secondly, parts essential to animals respecting 

J ^ : fc A 

D? wili.iam nr:vi'Kit. 


their own internal economy. Thirdly, parts 
superadded for purposes connected with exter- 
nal objects. Fourthly, parts for the propaga- 
tion of the species and maintenance or support 
of the young. 

The first class exhibits the sap of vegetables 
and blood of animals, from which fluids all the 
different parts of the vegetable and animal crea- 
tion are formed, supported, and increased. These 
fluids being more and more compounded, as the 
vegetables and animals become more perfect, 
are coagulated, and form a regular series. The 
sap of many plants do not coagulate sponta- 
neously, but is made to undergo this change 
by adding the extract of Goulard, in this respect 
differing from water : the sap of such plants 
is considered the most simple. In the onion 
there is a spontaneous coagulation. In insects, 
the blood coagulates, but is without colour: in 
the amphibia, colour is superadded. The mov- 
ing powers of animals, from the simple straight 
muscle to the most complicated structure of that 
organ, with the different applications of elastic 
tegument, form a second series. The growth, 
horn, bone, and shell, come next in order; and 
the joints, which admit of their moving readily 
on one another, finish this subject. 

The second class begins with those animals 
of the hydatid kind, which receive nourishment, 


likti vegetables, from their external surface, hav- 
ing' no mouth. Then follow those which are 
simply a bag Or stomach, with one opening, as 
flig polypus, having no organs of generation, 
as every part of the bag is endowed with that 
power ; but in the leech, the structure becomes 
more complex ; for, although the animal is com- 
posed of a bag, with only one opening, the 
organs of generation, brain, and nerves, aTe 
superadded ; and thence a gradual series is 
continued to those animals in which the sto- 
mach forms only a distinct part of the animal 
for the purpose of digestion. The stomachs 
themselves are also arranged in the order of 
their simplicity, &c. 

After the stomachs are the different appear- 
ances of the intestinal canal, which exhibit 
almost an infinite variety in the structure of 
their internal surface, from which the aliment 
is absorbed, &c. To these afe added, the glands 
connected with the intestines, as the liver, pan- 
creas, arid Spleen, which may be properly Con- 
sidered as appendages. 

After digestion follows the system of the ab- 
sorbing vessels, the simplest being the roots of 
plants, after which are the lymphatic and lac- 
teal vessels of different animals, &c. 

The natural order, in following the course of 
th« aliment frOtri' the stomach as a guide, leads 


from the absorbents to the heart; which, in the 
caterpillar, is a simple canal or artery, running 
along the middle of the back of the animal, 
admitting of undulation of the blood : from this 
simple structure it becomes, in different animals, 
by small additions, more and more complex, 
till it arrives at the degree of perfection which 
is displayed in the organization of the human 
heart. These are followed by the different struc- 
tures of valves in the arteries and veins, and the 
coats of these vessels. Then the lungs are 
shewn in all their gradations, from the simple 
vascular lining of the egg-shell, which serves 
as lungs for the chicken, to those of the more 
perfect animals. In one instance, viz. that of 
the syren, both gills and lungs in the same ani- 
mals, &c. 

The third class takes up the most simple state 
of the brain, which is, in the leech, a single 
nerve with ramifications. In the snail the brain 
forms a circular nerve, through the middle of 
which passes the oesophagus. The insect-brain 
has a more compact form. In this manner the 
brain is traced until it becomes the large com- 
plex organ found in the elephant, and iff the 
human subject. The coverings of the brain, and 
the ganglions and peculiarities of the nerves, 
are annexed. The organs of sense are arranged 


in the order of their simplicity, beginning with 
that of touch, &c. 

After the brain and senses, are arranged the 
rellular membrane and animal oils, which are 
followed by the external coverings. These are 
divided into the different kinds, as hair, fea- 
thers, scales, &c. Added to these are the parts 
peculiar to different animals, for offence and 
defence, as spurs, hoofs, horns, stings, and also 
electric organs. Next follow, such peculiar 
structures as occur in certain tribes of animals, 
as the air-bladders in fish, &c. 

The fourth class begins with those animals 
which have no distinct organ allotted for gene- 
ration, that power being diffused over the whole 
animal ; in these the young grow out of the old, 
as in the coral and polypi; and next in order 
come the hermaphrodite organs, both of plants 
and of animals. The male organs are then taken 
up in distinct subjects, &c. ; after which, the 
female organs are exhibited, in the maiden state, 
in every class of animals, &c; to which are 
added, the peculiarities respecting the hymen, 
&c. The eggs of insects follow next, with their 
changes, particularly the silk-worm. The ar- 
rangement then proceeds to the formation and 
incubation of the egg of the fowl, as the process 
of fetation in the quadruped, with their various 
peculiarities, &c. 


There are, also, a considerable number of 
valuable drawings in this collection, to shew the 
progress of different processes in the animal 
economy, together with such appearances as are 
not capable of being preserved, &c. &c. 

This sketch v/ill furnish but a very inadequate 
idea of the system which is comprehended in 
Mr. Hunter's collection. It also includes a very 
large series of whole animals, in spirits, arrang- 
ed according to their internal structure; and 
many of the most rare specimens of preserved 
animals in this country, as the cameleopardos, 
guanico, hippopotamus, tapir, argus pheasant, 
&c. &c. 

There is, besides, a series of sculls of different 
animals, to shew their peculiarities, and skele- 
tons of almost every known species of animals. 
There is a large collection of shells and insects; 
a prodigious number of calculi of different sorts, 
from the urinary and gall-bladders, the stomach, 
and intestinal canal. There are, likewise, the 
most uncommon deviations from the natural 
structure, both in man and in other animals, 
preserved in spirits or in a dried state. The 
most extraordinary specimens of this kind are 
a double human uterus, one of the parts preg- 
nant; and a double human skull perfectly form- 
ed, the one upon the top of the other. To make 
this collection more complete, in every subject 


connected with comparative anatomy, is- added 
one of the largest and most select collections 
of extraneous fossils that can be seen in this 


Acquired great popular fame by a work " On 
the Right Way to a Long Life." It is a plain 
practical piece. His account of the several 
articles treated of is compiled, though without 
any quotations, from the current authors of the 
age. The rules and admonitions are trite ; but 
the stile and manner of the treatise were well 
calculated to render it acceptable to common 


Fcdstaff. Sirrah, you giant, what says the doctor to my 
water ? 

Page. He said, sir, the water itself was a good healthy 
water ; but, for the party that owed (owned) it, he might 
have more diseases than he knew for. 

This method of investigating diseases- was 
once so much the fashion, that Linacre, the 
founder of the College of Physicians, formed a 
statute to restrain apothecaries from carrying 
the water of their patients to a doctor, and after- 
wards giving medicines in consequence of the 
opinions they received concerning it. This sta- 
tute was followed, sooa after, by another, which 


forbad* the doctors themselves to pronounce 
on any disorder, from such an uncertain diag- 


In Dr. Clark's Italian defence of the Edin- 
burgh school of Medicine, against the attack 
made on it by the celebrated Bolognese Profes- 
sor Tommasini, he incidentally noticed, in this 
vindication of his alma mater, Tommasini's very 
imperfect acquaintance with the medical litera- 
ture of this country. This insinuation of his 
defective knowledge seems to have consider- 
ably excited the personal and patriotic feelings 
of the professor, who forthwith published a reply 
to Dr. Clark. As might have been expected, 
he failed egregiously in the latter particular, and 
quite as much and more so in respect of the 
authors cited, as of those omitted by him. As, 
however, this pretended account of our medical 
literature, and the view of our medical doctrine 
and practice thence derived, presented the sem- 
blance, at least, of being founded in fact, Dr. 
Clark deemed it necessary once more to answer 
the ftalian professor. 

Dr. Clark readily concedes to Tommasini, 
that, in some respects, the Italian system of 
instruction is more favourable for the student, 
but that it is certainly less humane towards the 


patient. The system of lecturing (for such it is) 
on the disease, in the presence of the patient, is, 
unquestionably, cruel and disgusting in the 
highest degree ; and yet not so cruel either, 
some cases excepted. But were medical men 
better acquainted with the Latin language, 
which, to our disgrace, is less familiar with us 
than with many of our neighbours, so much so, 
that with professors, as well as students, it is 
almost truly become a dead letter, these inconve- 
niences might be beneficially obviated, and clini- 
cal lectures become then deserving of the name. 

" I have myself, (says Dr. C.) heard this 
done at the bedside of a poor consumptive pa- 
tient; and a friend of mine was lately present 
when the same practice was adopted in a case 
of cancer uteri; at the end of the exposition, 
the poor woman burst into a flood of tears." 

It lias long been a common subject of com- 
plaint with the medical writers of this' country, 
that their discoveries and improvements were 
overlooked or disregarded by continental au- 
thors, more especially the French, until such 
time as they had acquired a sort of right and 
title, by adoption, transformation, or intermar- 
riage, to be considered as legitimate productions 
of their foster land. Then, indeed, they never 
failed to be introduced to the savans of their 
new country, with all the pride, pomp, and cir- 


cumstance to which they were intrinsically and 
pxtrinsically entitled. It is true, that similar 
complaints were made, and still continue to 
be made, of us, on the other side of the 
channel; we think, however, (in all candour 
and honesty) with decidedly less reason on 
the part of our accusers. And we think the 
difference in this particular may be very simply 
and satisfactorily explained, without any illi- 
beral or offensive reference to national cha- 
racter, by the mere fact of the languages of 
the countries alluded to, being much better 
and much more generally understood in Eng- 
land, than our language is on the continent; it is 
sufficiently certain that the French and Italian 
medical authors betray lamentable ignorance of 
our literature. A very striking, and indeed 
amusing, instance of this is now before us. in the 
Letter of Tommasini, one of the best-informed 
foreigners, be it remembered, to Dr. Clark. In 
his first Letter, Dr. C, as we have alreadv re- 
marked, expressed his opinion of his opponent's 
imperfect acquaintance with our best authors, 
naming several of them. Tommasini, in his 
rej>ly, not only admits the full merit of the wa- 
ters cited by Dr. C, but adds several others, 
equally meritorious, not cited by him; which 
shewed that Tommasini's materials were princi- 
pally derived from our periodical journals; and 


that he was either unable or unwilling to disr 
criminate between the crude effusions of tlie igno- 
rance and conceit which fill those receptacles 
of all manner of trash, and the matured labours 
of learning and experience. 

In combating Tommasini's charge of empi- 
ricism, brought against our practical medicine, 
Dr. Clark has many just and forcible observa- 
tions ; among which we notice the following : — 

" It is true, indeed, that in England we have no genera/ 
doctrine — no grand and all explaining theory; not, in- 
deed, because there exists any dislike to rational theory, 
but because there exists a firm conviction that the degree 
of our knowledge is at present too limited to authori?<.' 
the formation of a theory capable of explaining the inti- 
mate nature of our various diseases, and stfll less of 
explaining the mode of action of tlie medicines «mploy<'! 
in their cure. 

" Although the term diathesis is not received in Eng- 
land in the same sense as in Italy, British practitioner? 
are not, on this account, less desirous of distinguishing 
diseases according to their essential characters, or less 
diligent in their researches for their true pathology i nor 
are they backward in generalizing their observations 
founded on such researches, and in applying the results 
to practice — provided always, that these results are based 
on a faithful induction of facts. When, however, this 
basis is wanting, as I apprehend it must frequently be, 
to those who vaunt most of their theory, in this case, the 
English physician is not ashamed to return to empiri- 
cisms, which, however despised by modern theorists, we 
are obliged, nevertheless, humbly to confess to be, in tJ;« 


arterial state of our knowledge, at once the best resource 
of the practitioner, and the beat safe-guard of the patient 
against the pernicious consequences of theory. And here 
I beg to be understood as speaking, not of that blind 
empiricism which is the offspring of ignorance and pre- 
sumption, but of that philosophical empiricism which is 
the result of observation and sound experience. At the 
same time, I am far from embracing the cause of empi- 
ricism. I admit its utility only when we are abandoned 
by the true light of pathology ; I ain even ready to confess, 
that it has exercised, and still exercises an undue influence 
over the minds of many English practitioners. This, 
perhaps, may be justly considered as a natural conse- 
quence of the unsatisfactory results of all medical theories. 
That the better class, however, of British practitioners 
are influenced by a very different spirit, is sufficiently 
manifest from the works already quoted. 

" It is finally," observed Dr. Clark, " that the labours 
of the Italian physician are conducted with the view of 
supporting a doubtful theory ; those of the English, in the 
design of amassing materials, whence may eventually be 
composed a theory that will not pass away. If the English 
school is characterised by a spirit of extreme caution in 
the admission of facts, and by a philosophy, perhaps, too 
strict, in deducing general principles from these, the Ita- 
lian school appears to me to be characterised by too great 
a facility in admitting facts, and too great a precipitancy 
in deducing consequences. Which of these effects is 
more hurtful to the student, I leave others to decide; to 
me it appears, that the effect of the former is to excite, 
in the youthful mind, a love for observation, a commend- 
able diligence and circumspection in the examination of 
facts, and a philosophic caution in drawing conclusions ; 



and that of the tatter rather to withdraw the attentiou 
from observation, and to supply the place of this with an 
•verweaning confidence in theory." 

Lettera del Dottore Giacomo Clark al Professore 
Giacomo Tommasini,intorno alia Litter atur a 
Englese, pp. 47, Roma, 1823. 


Real or feigned, the doctor was, what is usu- 
ally termed, an eccentric character. There are, 
doubtless, originals of this cast where the mas- 
terly hand of nature is so strongly marked as 
to leave no scruples, on the mind of the ob- 
server, of the actual existence of this innoxious, 
though frequently troublesome, " genus muta- 
bile mundi." The genuine eccentric is eccentric 
in all his motions. His greatest source of in- 
quietude, if any thing of the kind such being* 
ever experience, is, that he cannot walk upon 
his head, to evince his natural antipathy against 
the vultus ad sidera of the human species. 

It would seem that dame nature took particu- 
lar delight in sporting with the persons of the 
learned. Pope was hump-backed; Goldsmith 
was bandy-legged ; Dr. Johnson was a Russian- 
bear, both in manners and appearance; and 
Gibbon, the historian, was as ugly as a buck- 
horse. Dr. Marryat was, also, unable to boast 
of the charms of his person. In his disposition 


he was, latterly, morose, with a bluntness in 
his manners bordering upon perfect rudeness, 
aping the manners, or rather ill manners, of 
our great lexicographer. He was, nevertheless, 
a pleasant companion when he chose to expand 
himself, but a perfect hedge-hog to strangers, 
and those whom he disliked. 

Marryat's medical opinions, in many points, 
are not only very disputable, but, probably, un- 
founded ; and his practice, in general, is of that 
bold and decisive nature, that some of his pre- 
scriptions* are much too drastic and powerful 
for common or indiscriminate use. His good 
fortune, in restoring to health some pati&nts 
who had long been afflicted with some painful 
and dangerous maladies, acquired him a repu- 
tation which quickly enabled him to keep his 
carriage; but he was improvident, and made 
no provision for the infirmities which usually 
attend the bon vivant; and, in consequence, 
was, towards the close of his career, much 

Few people require to be told, that a man's 
acquaintance, and even those who once called 
themselves friends, drop off, in exactly the same 
proportion as a man lessens in his abilities to 
entertain them. Thus it was with Dr. Marryat; 

* See his " Art of Healing." 


and he actually stuck a paper, in his own hand, 
upon the glass of the Bush coffee-house, enquir- 
ing, ' If any one remembered that there was 
such a person as Thomas Marryat?' — and in- 
forming them, that ' he still lived, or rather 
existed, in Horsfield-road.' 

In the midst of his poverty he, nevertheless, 
strenuously and haughtily refused the assistance 
of some very near relatives, of the highest re- 
spectability, who would willingly have comfort- 
ed his old age, if the pride of his spirit would 
have permitted them. He was a man of strict 
integrity, and was always punctual to the utmost 
of his abilities, when it was in his power. In 
his latter days, when he imagined his credit was 
bad, he applied to a Mr. A. and abruptly said, 
" You don't know me ; but will you trust me 
with abed to sleep upon?" — the reply was in the 
affirmative : — " well then," said he, "I shall 
pay you on such a day." Exactly at the ap- 
pointed time, the doctor called, but not rinding 
Mr. A. at home, he wrote a note, saying, " Why 
do you make me a liar? I called to pay you ; 
send for your money this evening, or I will 
throw it into the street." 

In his last illness a friend came to see him, 
to whose interrogatories, respecting his health, 
he replied, " I am very bad; but it is not worth 
your while to stay and see an old nian die," 


Afterwards, in the course of the conversation, he 
said, " the world supposes that I am an atheist, 
but I am not ; I know and believe that there is 
an Almighty God who made me, and will not 
suffer me to perish, and, therefore, I am not 
afraid to die." 

There is even some reason to think that, lat- 
terly, he became an Unitarian, though he was 
silent on that point ; for his servant had fre- 
quently surprised him in deep meditation, over, 
what she considered to be, a cabinet of jewels, 
as he constantly shut it up when observed, but 
which, after his death, which happened on the 
29th of May, 1792, upon examination was found 
to be a very fine edition of the New Testament, 
in Greek. 


In the knowledge of surgery these were the 
two most noted persons of their time. Peter 
Lowe's " Discourse on Chirurgery," is a general 
treatise on the subject, as well operative as 
judicial, and was designed for the use of begin- 
ners. It is a copious, plain, and methodical 
work, full of references to ancient and modern 
authors; and, indeed, more founded on autho- 
rity than observation. Far superior, in point 
of merit in his profession, was John Woodall. 
His tract on the Scurvy, whether for accuracy 


in describing the disease, or judiciousness in 
the method of cure, has, perhaps, been scarcely 
since excelled. A variety of judicious remarks 
and directions, concerning medicines, diet, and 
external applications, occur in the work, which 
appear evidently to be the result of experience 
and observation, and are, in a great measure, 
confirmed by modern practice. Another piece 
of Mr. Woodall's, " A Treatise on Gangrene 
and Sphacelus," is entitled to particular con- 
sideration, on account of an important innova- 
tion, which it introduced, with respect to ampu- 
tation. This was, amputation in the mortified, 
instead of the sound part; a practice not 
new, indeed, but at that time universally dif- 
fused. He threw out, likewise, the first hint 
in favour of amputating as low as the ancle in 
diseases of the foot. In short, Mr. Woodall has 
a claim to the most honourable distinction in 
the surgical history of his period. 


A few years ago, one of the dressers in 
St. Thomas's hospital, wished very much to per- 
form an operation ; and he turned his atten- 
tion to the surgery boy, who had a bad leg, and 
said to him, one day, " Abraham, I should like 
to cut off your leg." — " Would you, indeed," 
said Abraham, " but I should not like it." — 


" Oh," said the dresser, " it will never be of 
any use to you in its present state, and, there- 
fore, you had better be without it. I will take 
a lodging for you; 1 will give you some money, 
and you shall be well attended." The boy's 
scruples were at length overcome — he took the 
money, went to a lodging, all was arranged, 
and the operator began ; but, finding a great 
discharge of blood, he cried out to his assistant 
" Screw the tourniquet tighter." He obeyed; 
but, in doing so, the screw broke ; and at this 
unforeseen accident, the dresser lost all pre- 
sence of mind; he jumped about the room, then 
ran to the sufferer, and vainly endeavoured to 
stop the effusion of blood by compressing the 
wound with his hand; his sleeve became filled 
wilh blood, and poor Aby would to a certainty 
have " slipped his wind" in a very short time, 
had not a pupil accidentally called, who had 
the presence of mind to apply the key of the 
door to the femoral artery, and by compressing 
it at the part where this vessel glides over the 
pubis, stopped the haemorrhage, and thus gain- 
ed time for the application of another tourni- 

This is among the many examples brought 
forward by that eminent surgeon Sir Astley 
Cooper, in his Lectures, to impress upon the 
minds of his pupils the imperative necessity of 


being well acquainted with the anatomy of the 
human body. " By this it is," he observed, 
" that you must lay the foundation for future 
advancement; and without which you cannot 
conscientiously discharge your duty to society." 

It is certain that the generality of spiders may 
be swallowed without any apprehension of the 
least bad effect from them, as the very minute 
quantity of the poisonous fluid contained in 
their fangs is not sufficient to produce any in- 
jury to a full grown person, nor probably even 
to an infant. 

The famous Anna Maria Schurman was fond 
of eating spiders; and Roesel has mentioned 
several similar instances. Mouffet, in his ' His- 
tory of Insects,' tells a pleasant story of a pro- 
fligate medical practitioner, who undertook to 
cure a rich lady of London of a tympanites, sti- 
pulating to have half the proposed reward paid 
him immediately, and the other half on the cure 
being completed. Having received the half 
share of the reward, which was a considerable 
sum, he administered several spiders to his 
patient, disguised in the form of pills, and, be- 
ing probably alarmed by the violence of their 
action, and not doubting but that he had poi- 
soned her, he absconded; but hearing, some 

IJ* IIIi.M'K, 


time afterwards, that the lady was perfectly 
recovered, he returned, and waited on the lady, 
to whom he apologised for his long absence, and 
immediately received the remainder of his re- 
ward, with many praises for the efficacy of his 
medicine. — s. 


A single woman, of fourscore years of age, 
being opened, had the hymen nearly circular, 
with only a small perforation in the middle! It 
is preserved, as one of the greatest curiosities 
in all France, by M. Sue, Member of the Aca- 
demy of Surgery. M. Fournier, in the " Dic- 
tionnaire des Sciences Medicales" says, " This 
is a most surprising phenomenon, since the 
hymen is so early destroyed, in general, by the 
most innocent introductions." 


This eminent physiologist, and very able 
physician, discharged his debt to nature on 
the 23d of March, 1823. The conveyance 
of his mortal remains to their mother earth 
was attended by the carriages of upwards 
of thirty friends; among which were those of 
Dr. Babington, Sir Astley Cooper, Mr. Cline, 
and the other medical officers of the Bo- 
rough-hospitals. The doctor never entered the 


state of matrimony, which his intimate friends 
attributed to the petulance of his temper, and 
abruptness of his manners, which nearly ap- 
proximated to those of a certain great anatomist 
and surgeon of the present day, who, however, 
fortunately met with a lady that was so fasci- 
nated with his eccentricity, on his first visit, as 
to require little entreaty to become his partner 
for life. 

The doctor had been for many winters sub- 
ject to chronic inflammation of the membrane of 
the windpipe and bronchial tubes, which was 
frequently attended with symptoms of tubercu- 
lar consumption. 

As an anatomist, physiologist, physician, and 
accoucheur, the doctor was inferior to no man. 
So superior was his knowledge of the diseases 
and physiology of the uterus, that he gave this 
part of Mr. Cline's anatomical lectures by his 
particular invitation. 

Dr. Haighton was one of the practitioners the 
College of Physicians, about fifteen years ago, 
resolved to prosecute, for exercising the healing 
art, within the limits of their jurisdiction, with- 
out a licence. The doctor, like a sincere friend 
to science, replied, that he had no objection to 
submit to the strictest examination to which that 
learned body could subject him, and to pay 
their demand for a licence; but the College, al- 


though they did not dispute his competency to 
practise physic, insisted on his residing at some 
university two years, in order to entitle him to 
an examination. Being as well acquainted with 
all the branches of medicine as any member of 
the College, the doctor resisted their mandate. 
To require so able a physician to leave his con- 
nexion for two years, to attend the lectures of 
teachers of an university (no matter where, so 
that it was an university,) who were much his 
inferiors in every department of medicine, merely 
to entitle him to an examination, was, indeed, 
a proceeding so truly preposterous, that, it 
would be supposed, no body of men, however 
unlimited their power might be, would dare to 
adopt in an enlightened country. 

Dr. Haighton disregarded their threats, while 
others thought it prudent to make the best bar- 
gains they could, in order to silence them. 
Some, as Drs. Clarke and Denman, agreed to 
pay the monthly mulct of five guineas; others 
went to an university, to qualify themselves for 
an examination, as Dr. Walchman, Dr. George 
Rees, &c. ; and others, as Dr. Babington, Dr. 
Adams, &c, acknowledged their power, and 
politely admitted that the real object of the Col- 
lege was the promotion of medical science, and 
the good of the public ; and not, as others had 
basely asserted, the monopoly of the fee-trade. 


The resolutions of the College will, it is hoped, 
induce the enlightened part of the public to in- 
vestigate the motive of their proceedings, the 
consequences of which will, no doubt, induce 
them to adopt bye-laws adapted to the present 
state of the Science of Medicine ; and to admit 
all who are found competent to practise the art, 
without regard to the place where he obtained 
his knowledge. 


In the year 1525, died Thomas Lynacre, or 
Linacer,* one of the most polite scholars of the 
age. He was well descended, was born in 1460, 
at Canterbury, and bred at All Souls' College, 
Oxford, whence he travelled to Italy. At Bo- 
logna he studied under Angelo Politian, whom, 
he is said, to have surpassed in pure latinity. 
At Florence he was much regarded by the Duke 
Lorenzo, and became perfect in Greek, by the 
assistance of Demetrius, a Constantinopolitan 
fugitive. He studied philosophy at Rome under 
Hermolaus Barbarus; and, on his return to 
England was successively appointed physician 
to Henry VII. and VIII., Prince Edward, and 
the Princess Mary. He translated many diffi- 

* The damask-rose is said to have been introduced 
into England by this eminent physician, not long before 
he died. 


cult pieces from the Greek of Galen; gave lec- 
tures on medicine at Oxford, to which univer- 
sity he was a benefactor, and was founder of 
the College of Physicians in London. 

Not long before his decease he took holy 
orders; for this several reasons are given, but 
none satisfactory. Sir John Cheke says, that 
a little before his death Linacre began to read 
the New Testament; but, struck with the purity 
of its precepts, he hurled it away in a passion, 
crying, " Either this is not the gospel, or we are 
not Christians!" — Aiken. 


The Court of Star-Chamber, in June, 1632, 
upon the petition of the College of Physicians, 
ordered, that the Apothecaries should not make 
any alterations in the prescriptions brought to 
them to be dispensed; that they should not sell 
any poisons, [i. e. powerful medicines] or [ordi- 
nary] medicines without a bill or prescription of 
a physician, or upon a bill either written or sub- 
scribed by him that either buyeth or taketh the 
same, and that all such bills or prescriptions 
should be retained and filed by the Apothecary, 
as his warrant and order for selling the same. 

The same court also ordered, that no surgeon 
in London, or within seven miles thereof, should 
take off" a limb, trepan the head, open the chest 



or belly, cut for the stone, or perform any capi- 
tal operation, such as their own bye-laws re- 
quire them to call in the attendance of their 
Wardens or Assistants, unless in the presence 
of one or more of the physicians of the College, 
or of his majesty's physicians. — s. 


Eif ZbuXXov flwrti himv fyzvyUTa X«{u(3fc», 
Kupaj' i«Tpa> vsrm «Xsi/o/u£vii. 

" Incidit in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdin," 
Qui, morbum fugiens, incidit in medicum.* 


In the spring of the year 1776, Mr. Paulin, 
physician to the Bishop of Munster, was con- 
sulted by a man of consideration, who, for five 
or six years, had suffered severe pains in the 
stomach and the hypochondria; he was resolv- 
ed to take the Frankfort Pills, the composition 
of which is attributed to Bacher; persuaded that 
nothing but these pills could cure him, and ob- 
stinately refused every other remedy. 

M. Paulin, surprised at so singular a preju- 
dice, promised to satisfy him, and to compose 
the pills himself; but, judging them to be in 

* He falls into Scylla, wishing to avoid Charybdis, 
Who, flying from the disease, falls into the hands of 
the physician. 


no way suitable to the state of the patient, he 
made, with crumbs of -new bread and spittle, 
eighteen pills, which he gilt and sent to the 
patient. He took them with avidity from day- 
break, and, in the evening, came to M. Paulin, 
and told him he had vomitted once, and eva- 
cuated abundantly, downwards, five times ; that, 
in short, he was perfectly cured. The physician, 
being unwilling to believe these spontaneous 
evacuations, which he well knew could not be 
the effect of the pills that he had given to the 
patient, went to his house, where he found, 
indeed, a very great quantity of piluitous matter 
discharged. Shall we attribute this purgation 
to the disposition of the patient's body, or to his 
heated imagination? It is probable it will be re- 
garded as the effect of a heated imagination, 
especially as it is made to play so great a part 
in the animal economy, and, as it is pretended, 
it performs marvellous cures. 

Moreover, if the effect of the pills above- 
mentioned can be attributed to the disposition 
of the body of the patient, the following is an 
account of others, which have produced their 
effect solely by the irritation which the sight of 
them occasioned. 

A man, says Olaus Borrichius, in the Acts of 
Copenhagen for the year 1678, whom I cured 
and purged after his illness, requested me to 


order a mild purgative for his wife. This lady, 
being delicate, made much ado to swallow them 
in the presence of her husband, who took liquid 
medicines well enough, but had a sort of honor 
for pills. These had so strong an effect on his 
imagination, that he instantly desired his wife 
to swallow them or he should vomit; but the 
business was done, and he was purged much 
sooner than his wife, and even more than her, 
for he vomited twice, besides having thr,ee abun- 
dant stools. 


The old quaint saying, so often used, that the 
best physicians are Dr. Quiet, Dr. Diet, and Dr. 
Merry man, is translated from the following dis- 
tich of the Schola Salernitana : — 

Si tibi deficiant medici, medici tibi fiant, 

Haec tria — mens hilaris, requies, moderata diaeta. 


Few medical men are acquainted with the 
fact, that the famous Colonel Blood, who at- 
tempted to steal the regalia from the Tower, 
desirous of concealing himself for some years 
before the attempt, settled his wife and son at 
Romford, in an apothecary's shop, by the name 
of Weston, turned doctor himself, and practised 
for some time, under the name of Ayliffe. — s. 



Was a physician who had the address to 
render his rosicrucian doctrines the instrument 
of success, in the way of his profession, during 
the reign of James I. He is said to have used 
a kind of sublime unintelligible cant, of which 
his works furnish ample specimens, to his 
patients, which, -by inspiring them with greater 
faith in his skill, might, in some cases, contri- 
bute to their cure. Accordingly, he was emi- 
nent in his medical capacity; and his invention 
of the thermometer, as a measure of heat and 
cold, shews that his cant did not prevent his 
better knowledge. 


M. Fournier saw a woman at Berlin, whose 
tongue was amazingly large, but thin as a cat's. 
When this woman laughed, her tongue covered 
the whole of her mouth, and hung out like 
folds of drapery. It was always cold, and com- 
municated a most frigorific sensation to the 
hand of another person. The same author 
knew a handsome young woman, fifteen or 
sixteen years of age, who, although she had a 
long neck, could extend her tongue to her 
breast without stooping her head ! If these 
organs performed their loquacious functions, 

VOL. III. p 



in a manner proportionate to their magnitude, 
what a perpetual ringing of treble-bob majors, 
and grandsire cators for the poor devils, their 
husbands, to endure. 


The study and practice of physic, like other 
sciences, had fallen into the hands of the clergy, 
as Fleury and Dom Rivet observe. The Coun- 
cil of Rheims, under Innocent II. in 1 1 31, for- 
bade monks to frequent Schools of Medicine, 
or practise it out of their own monastery, on 
account of the law of inclosure; but some 
monks still pursued it at home, and some 
among the secular clergy continued to teach 
and practise it as before. Peter Lombard, 
canon of Chartres, (a different person from the 
Bishop of Paris of the same name) was first 
physician to King Louis the Young; and Mau- 
ger, Archdeacon of Evreux, afterwards Bishop 
of Winchester, in 1199, was first physician to 
Richard I. King of England. The council of 
Lateran, in 1215, forbade the clergy who prac- 
tised medicine to perform any operations in 
which steel instruments or fire were applied. 

In the 13th century, surgery began to be a 
distinct profession from medicine. Till that 
time the latter was looked upon in the schools 
as a part of physics, or natural philosophy ; nor 


was it made a distinct faculty before the year 
1472. Though the belles lettres were still 
neglected till the Greeks flying from Constanti- 
nople, on the approach of the Ottoman forces, 
revived the taste of them in the West ; the study 
of medicine began to be much cultivated, with 
other serious sciences, in the 11th and 12th cen- 
turies : but anatomy and botany were little 
known, without which physicians are no better 
than empirics. Medicine then consisted in 
reading principally Galen and Hippocrates, and 
in observing nature, the only true method of 
that study which Hippocrates leads his atten- 
tive readers to pursue. The most famous 
schools for medicine, set up in the 12th age, 
were those of Paris and Montpellier. That of 
Padua succeeded them; and they were pre- 
ceded by that of Salerno, of all others at that 
time the most celebrated, and much resorted to 
from France, England, &c. as appears from the 
learned John of Salisbury, in his Metalogicus, 
1. iv. c. 4. The famous medical institutions of 
the school of Salerno, collected by the professor 
Peter, of Milan, chiefly from the Arabians and 
Galen, which had been so often reprinted, were 
compiled in the 11th age. Robert, Duke of 
Normandy, having consulted the school of Sa- 
lerno, as he passed through Italy, in his return 
from the first crusade, a copy of tliis book was 
r 2 


king to the cottager, and he acquired, in con- 
sequence, an ample fortune. 


Cullen was long an obscure medical prac- 
titioner, in a country village in Scotland, 
where he could neither acquire fame nor riches ; 
but it happened that, while he resided there, 
Archibald, Duke of Argyle, visited a gentleman 
in the neighbourhood. The duke dabbled in 
chemistry, and, indeed, had a more than ordinary 
knowledge of the subject : but, while on this 
visit, was much at a loss for want of a small 
chemical apparatus. His host, recollecting Mr. 
Cullen, invited him to dine, and introduced him 
to the duke as a person likely to supply hi$ 
wants. An introduction to one of his grace's 
great political influence could not but be favour- 
able. A successful cure he afterwards per- 
formed on the Duke of Hamilton, completed 
his character. His first step, in 1746, was to 
the chemical chair in the University of Glas- 

It has been said, that no profession affords so 
many opportunities of displaying the virtues of 
benevolence as the medical. Of these oppor- 
tunities no man, perhaps, ever availed himself 
oftener, or with a better grace. He never took 
fees of the clergy ; who, in Scotland, can ill 


afford the pecuniary penalties of disease; the 
students were equally the objects of his consi- 
deration. Dr. Anderson, of Edinburgh, gives 
us a pleasant anecdote of the advantage once 
derived from Dr. Cullen's charitable disposition. 
A medical student, who attended a course of 
lectures given by one of the medical professors, 
but who never had attended Cullen's class, hap- 
pened to be seized with the small-pox. At the 
beginning of the disorder he was sick and very 
uneasy, and naturally sent for his own pro- 
fessor, as a physician. The disease soon ter- 
minated favourably, and all danger had abated, 
when the young man surprised his friends by 
calling in the assistance of Dr. Cullen, for 
winch he said he had reasons, which they would 
approve of when they knew them. When 
quite recovered, he watched an opportunity 
when both the physicians were present, thanked 
Dr. Cullen for his attention, and offered him 
money. This the doctor (as the young wag 
foresaw) positively refused. He then offered it 
to the other, (his own professor) who for shame 
could not accept it; although it was never 
known that he had refused a fee when offered. 
The reason of his calling in Dr. Cullen was 
very apparent. 


The failure of such a person as Dr. Bath- 
urst, in a profession in which very many igno- 
rant men have been known to succeed — so 
ignorant as to request of the College the indul- 
gence of an examination in English, was a 
matter of wonder to Johnson and all that knew 
him. An acute observer, who had looked on the 
transactions of the medical world for half a cen- 
tury, states a very curious book might be written 
on the fortune of physicians." The following 
remarks have occurred in the course of a long 
intimacy with some of the most eminent of the 

In the metropolis, the track of a young phy- 
sician is pretty plainly pointed out, and it is 
curious that the conduct of such an one is 
reducible to a system. Mead was the son of 
a non-conforming minister, the teacher of a nu- 
merous congregation, who, trusting to his in- 
fluence over them, bred his son a physician ; 
with what success is well known. Indeed, the 
interest which the dissenting teachers had with 
the members of their several congregations, 
though now but little known, was formerly very 
great, and was such, that scarcely any member 
of a separate congregation would dispose of a 
daughter, or make a purchase, or advance a 
sum of money on a mortgage, without first con- 
sulting his pastor. It has been said, that when 


Mead began to practise, he was a constant 
frequenter of the meeting at Stepney, where his 
father preached; and that when he was sent 
for out of the assembly, which he often was, 
his father would, in his prayer, insert a petition 
in behalf of the sick person. This was once 
mentioned to Johnson, who said it was too gross 
for belief; but it was not so at Batson's; it 
passed there as a current tradition. 

Dr. Mead raised the medical character to 
such a height of dignity as was never seen in 
this or any other country. His example was 
an inducement with others of the dissenting 
ministers to make physicians of their sons. 
Oldfield, Clarke, Nesbitt, Lobb, and Munckly, 
were the sons of dissenting teachers, and they 
generally succeeded. The hospital of St. Tho- 
mas, and that of Guy, in Southwark, were both 
under the government of dissenters and whigs ; 
and as soon as any one became physician of 
either, his fortune was looked upon as made. 

The same advantage attended the election of 
a physician to the hospitals of Bethlehem and 
St. Bartholomew, which are of royal foundation, 
and have been under tory government. By culti- 
vating an interest with either of the two parties, 
the succession of a young physician was almost 
insured. The frequenting Batson's or Child's 
was a declaration of the side he took, and his 


business was to be indiscriminately courteous 
and obsequious to all men; to appear much 
abroad and in public places, to increase his 
acquaintance, and form good connexions ; in 
the doing of which, if he were married, a wife 
that could visit, play at cards, and tattle, was 
oftentimes very serviceable. A candidate for 
practice pursuing these methods, and exercising 
the patience of a setting-dog for half a score 
years, in the expectation of deaths, resigna- 
tions, or other accidents that occasion vacan- 
cies, at the end thereof either found himself an 
hospital physician, and if of Bethlehem, a mono- 
polist one and a very lucrative branch of prac- 
tice; or doomed to struggle with difficulties 
for the remainder of his life. 

Jurin, Shaw, James, and' some few others, 
recommended themselves to practice by their 
writings; but, in general, the methods of ac- 
quiring it, at least in the city, were such as are 
above described. One, and only one, of the 
profession, pursued a different conduct, and 
under the greatest disadvantages succeeded. 
— This person was Dr. Meyer Schomberg, a 
native of Cologne, who being a Jew, and said 
to have been librarian to some person of dis- 
tinction abroad, left that occupation, and came 
and settled in London. Being of no profession, 
and having the means of a livelihood to seek, 


he was at a pause, but at length determined on 
one, and took it up in a manner that will be 
best described by his own words to a friend. 
— " I said I was a physician." Having thus 
assumed a profession, he cultivated an inti- 
macy with the Jews of Duke's-place ; and, by 
their means, got introduced to the acquaint- 
ance of some of the leading men, merchants 
and others, of their religion, who employed him, 
and by their interest recommended him to a 
practice, that, in a few years, amounted to a 
thousand pounds a year. 

He was a man of insinuating address, and 
as he understood mankind very well, having 
renounced the ritual distinctions of his reli- 
gion, he soon found out a method of acquiring 
popularity, which had never been practised by 
any of his profession ; he took a large house 
in the city, and kept a public table, to which, 
on a certain day in the week, all the young sur- 
geons were invited, and treated with an indis- 
criminate civility that had very much the ap- 
pearance of friendship, but meant nothing more 
than that they should recommend him to prac- 
tice. The scheme succeeded ; in the year 1740, 
Schomberg had outstripped all the city-physi- 
cians, and was in the annual receipt of four 
thousand pounds. 

T© enable him to practice, he had, at his set- 


ting out, procured himself to be admitted a 
licentiate of the College; but that permission 
had been granted him with so ill a grace, or 
was followed by some circumstances that pro- 
voked his resentment so highly, that he seemed 
resolved on a perpetual enmity against the mem- 
bers of that body ; who, on their part, looking 
on him as little better than a foreign mounte- 
bank, declined, as much as possible, meeting 
him in consultation, and thereby, for some 
time, checked his practice. 

Dr. Schomberg had a son, whom he. brought 
up to his own profession, who took it into his 
head, that having been admitted a licentiate, he 
was virtually a fellow, and claimed to be ad- 
mitted as such ; his father encouraged him, and 
instituted a process in his behalf, of which there 
had been no precedent since the time that 
Jefferies was Chancellor. It was no less than 
a petition to the King, requesting him, in the 
person of the lord chancellor, to exercise his 
visitatorial power over the College, and restore 
the licentiates to their rights, of which, by their 
arbitrary proceeding, the president and fellows 
had for a succession of ages deprived them. — 
This petition came on to be heard at Lincoln's- 
Inn Hall, before the Lord Chief Justice Willes, 
the Lord Chief Baron Smythe, and Sir John 
Eardly Willmot, Lords Commissioners of the 


Great Seal; but the allegations therein con- 
tained not being sufficiently supported, it was 
dismissed ; nevertheless, it was looked on as 
the most formidable attack on the College it 
had ever sustained, and may be said to have 
shaken its constitution to the very centre. 

Hence it appears that political associations 
and religious sects are excellent nurses to 
young men of professions, especially of that 
of Medicine; RatclifFe and Freind owed their 
fortunes to the support of the tories and 
Jacobites ; Mead and Hulse to the whigs, and 
Schomberg to the Jews. The Quakers also, 
no contemptible body of men, had power and 
interest sufficient to introduce into great prac- 
tice one of their own denomination; this was 
John Fothergill, a young man of parts and 
industry, who being bred an apothecary, and 
having obtained a Scotch degree, settled in 
London, and attached himself to Schomberg, 
taking him in many parts of his conduct for his 
exampler : so that, upon Schomberg's decease, 
he slid into his practice, and became one of the 
most popular of the city-physicians. These 
two persons, first one and then the other, for 
full thirty years carried all before them; and 
within that space of time numbers of the 
profession, and no doubt of equal abilities, lived 
in great straits, some of them leaving at their 


decease scarcely sufficient to bury them. From 
these, and many other instances that might be 
produced, it is evident, that neither learning, 
parts, or skill, nor even all these united, are 
sufficient to ensure success in the profession 
of physic ; and that, without the concurrence 
of adventitious circumstances, which no one 
can pretend to define, a physician of the 
greatest merit may be lost to the world. 


The medical character, whatever it is now, 
was heretofore a grave one : it implies learning 
and sagacity ; and therefore, notwithstanding 
Lord Shaftesbury's remark, that gravity is of 
the very essence of imposture, the candidates 
for practice, though ever so young, found it 
necessary to add to their endeavours a grave 
and solemn deportment, even to affectation. 

The physicians in Hogarth's prints are not 
caricatures ; the full dress with a sword and 
a great tie-wig, and the hat under the arm, 
and the Doctors in consultation, each smelling 
to a gold-headed cane, shaped like a parish- 
beadle's staff, are pictures of real life in his 
time; and a young physician thus equipped, 
walked the streets of London without attract- 
ing the eyes of passengers. 



The following case, attested by the principal 
physicians and surgeons of Brest, must cast 
in the shade that of the knife-eater, whose dis- 
section excited so much curiosity, a few years 
ago, in this country. 

A galley-slave died at the naval hospital of 
Brest, of a complaint in his stomach, attended 
with cough and colicky pains. On opening 
him the stomach was seen occupying the left 
hypochondrium, the lumbar and iliac regions 
of the same side, and stretching down into 
the pelvis. It was of a long square form, 
and contained the following substances, viz. 
a piece of a stave nineteen inches long, and half 
an inch in diameter ; a piece of a broom-stick 
six inches long, and half an inch in diameter ; 
another piece of the same, eight inches long ; 
ditto, six inches long ; twenty-two other pieces 
of wood, of three, four, and five inches in 
length ; a wooden spoon, five inches long ; the 
pipe of an iron funnel, three inches long and 
one in diameter ; another piece of funnel, two 
inches and a half long; a pewter spoon entire, 
seven inches long; another, three inches long ; 
another, two inches and a half long; a square 
piece of iron, weighing nearly two ounces. 
Various other articles, among which were 
nails, buckles, horns, knives, &c. the whole 



weighing about twenty-four English ounces. This 
poor creature was deranged in his intellects, 
was a great glutton; and when he could not 
procure victuals to satisfy his voracity, he swal- 
lowed indigestible substances, as above, to lull 
the painful sensations of hunger. This case 
is attested beyond all doubt. — Cas rares. 


Telasius asserts, that he dissected a Roman 
soldier, in whom there was not a vestige of 
heart to be found ! however heartless a set the 
degenerated inhabitants of the " eternal city" 
may now be, we think M. Fouynier might have 
placed this among the "cas rares fabuleuses" 


Notwithstanding the numerous memoirs which 
have appeared on the epidemic fever of Spain, 
it is not in recollection that it has been explained 
on the Broussaian system before. M. Ferrari 
concludes, from what fell under his observation, 
that the yellow fever is a phlegmasia of the gas- 
tric and hepatic system, and not an essential 
fever ! That it arises from some poisonous sort 
of miasma ; and that this miasma or contagious 
poison is the effect of an union of certain causes 
and no other, excited by a certain degree of 
heat ! That the degree of heat is only a neces- 
sary condition, but not the exciting cause ; that 


as in the city of Xeres there does not exist, nor 
ever has existed, that union of circumstances 
necessary for its production, it is not therefore 
spontaneous, but has been imported as often as 
it has been experienced ; that considering the 
mode of attack, communication and propagation 
in the city of Xeres, it appears to be con- 
tagious ; and that, although it is certain that 
contagion alone, and not heat alone, may re- 
produce the yellow fever, this re-production is 
neither so frequent nor so easy as is supposed. 

Edin. Jour. 


An English surgeon, whose good fortune it 
was to open the commerce of India to his coun- 
trymen by the following accident, having been 
sent from Surat to Agra in the year 1636, 
to treat one of the daughters of the Emperor 
Shaw-Gehan, had the good fortune to cure 
the princess. By way of recompence, the em- 
peror, among other favours, gave him the privi- 
lege of a free commerce throughout the whole 
extent of his dominions. Broughton imme- 
diately returned to Bengal, to purchase goods 
and transmit them by sea to Surat. Scarcely 
had he returned, when he was requested to 
attend the favou'ite of the nabob of the pro- 
vince, labouring under a very dangerous dis- 
ease. Having fortunately restored his patient 


to health, the nabob settled a pension on him, 
confirmed the privilege of the empire, and 
promised to allow the same to all the English 
who should come to Bengal. Broughton com- 
municated all this to the English Governor of 
Surat, and it was by the advice of the latter, 
that the Company sent from England, in 1640, 
two ships to Bengal. Such was the origin of a 
commerce that has since been carried to so great 
an extent; and even produced territorial posses- 
sions superior in extent and population to the 
country an association of whose subjects is their 


A famous physician and anatomist, flourished 
in the 16th century. He was born at Bruxel- 
les ; was a physician to Charles V. and after- 
wards to his son Philip. He died on his return 
from the Holy Land, being cast by a storm 
upon the deserts of the isle of Zanthe. The 
occasion of his voyage to Jerusalem was this : 
having a Spanish gentleman under cure, who, 
after some time, appeared to him to be really 
dead, he asked his friends leave to open him ; 
which being granted, he no sooner applied the 
knife to the body, but he observed some signs 
of life, and having opened his breast, saw his 
heart beat. The man's friends, hearing of this 
sad accident, not only prosecuted Vesalius as 


a murderer, but accused him of impiety before 
the Inquisition, hoping he might be punished 
with special rigour by the judges of that tri- 
bunal. These, indeed, would have him pu- 
nished according to the nature of the crime ; 
but the King of Spain, partly by his authority, 
and partly by his entreaties, got him acquitted, 
upon condition that, to expiate the crime, he 
should go in pilgrimage to the Holy Land. 

Thuanus relates a very particular thing of 
him, viz. that having foretold to Maximilian of 
Egmont, Count of Bure, in Guelderland, the 
day and the hour of his death, this Lord or- 
dered a very splendid feast, loaded his table 
with all his plate, invited all his friends, sal 
down with them, pressed them to be merrv, 
distributed his treasures liberally among them ; 
then, having taken his leave, without the least 
emotion, went and laid him down and died, 
the same hour and day which Vesalius had 


Although this physician was at one time so 
much in favour of the College as to be chosen 
one of the thirty fellows, who, at that time, 
composed the nobili, or upper class of the Col- 
lege, yet this favour was of short duration, and 
a violent quarrel succeeded. 



Dr. William Harvey, in 1653, builded, at his 
own expence, a library and museum for the 
College; and Dr. Merret, who resided in the 
College, arranged the books therein, and per- 
formed the office of librarian, as he says, by 
the appointment of the College, acting on the 
recommendation of Dr. Harvey; but the Col- 
lege denied that this appointment ever took 
place, as it did not appear on their register. 
However this be, Dr. Harvey, afterwards, in 
1656, gave them certain lands as a fund to 
enable them to pay the librarian 201. a-year, 
requiring, that the said officer should give 
security for the due performance of his duty, 
and be removable at their pleasure. 

Dr. Merret continued to take care of the 
library, without any formal appointment, or 
the receipt of any regular salary ; but, as the 
rent of the house, in the college, held by him 
on lease was 201. a-year, the College never 
asked for their rent, but left it as a recompence 
for his trouble. 

In the great plague of 1666, the College- 
apartments were shut up ; but Dr. Merret flying 
with his family into the country, the place being 
left unguarded, was broken open, and the Col- 
lege robbed to the value of about 1000/. This 
was succeeded by the great fire of the same 
year, in which the College was burned down 


and many of their books also destroyed. Dr. 
Merret states that he preserved the remainder 
by the sacrifice of his own ; which the College 
thought improbable, as he had good warning 
for removal, the fire not reaching there until 
Wednesday, although it begun on Saturday 

In consequence of this destruction of the 
College, the dean and chapter of St. Paul's 
wished to cancel the lease of the ground on 
which Dr. Merret's house had stood ; but as his 
under-lease was unexpired, this could not be 
effected without his assent; which he gave on 
the receipt of 50/. from the College, who re- 
ceived 550/. from the dean and chapter for can- 
celling the lease which they had granted to the 

And now came the dispute; for Dr. Merret 
insisted on his having been appointed librarian 
for life by Dr, Harvey, after setting his name 
down to a subscription for rebuilding the Col- 
lege, as a contributor of 40/. not only refused to 
pay this money, but, also, a further contribu- 
tion of 20/. which it happened to be his turn to 
furnish for the College-feast that year, plead- 
ing his salary as a set off; he also kept pos- 
session of the books, as a security for their 
satisfying him for his own losses by the great 



It does not appear from the extracts of the 
college-registers, made by Dr. Charles Goodall, 
who had, at nearly the same time, a quarrel 
with the College, how this affair, which made 
a great noise amongst the faculty for several 
years, was terminated. — s. 


Harlequin, in one of the French comedies, 
pretends to be sick ; a physician who has cured 
him demands payment. This, Harlequin re- 
fusing, the physician brings his action. Both 
being in presence of the judge, Harlequin de- 
clares he does not wish to have the health he 
received, and proposes to give it back again, 
being ready to deliver it into the hands of the 
Judge, provided the doctor will do the same 
with the disease of which he had deprived him, 
so that each party may again have his own 


The following extract from a treatise com- 
posed by Guido Cauliaco, in 1363, will, as Dr. 
Henry justly observes, clearly point out the 
state of chirurgery at the eera of which we 

" There are," says he, " five sects of surgeons. 


The first follow Roger, Roland, &e. and apply 
poultices to all wounds and abscesses. The 
second follow Brumis and Theodoric, and use 
wine only. The third follow Saliceto and Lang- 
franc, and heal wounds with ointments and soft 
plaisters. The fourth are chiefly Germans, who 
attend the armies, and promiscuously use charms, 
potions, oil, and wood. The fifth are old women 
and ignorant people, who, in all cases, have 
recourse to the saints." 


Vallesnieri dissected a female in whom were 
found two uteri ; the orifice of one opened into 
the vagina, of the other into the rectum. M. 
Fournier says, there is no doubt but that coitus 
per anum would have been followed- by concep- 
tion. He grounds this opinion on the curious 
case related by the celebrated Louis, of a young 
lady who had a congenital imperforation of the 
external organs of generation. This girl men- 
struated per anum. She was solicited in mar- 
riage by a young man to whom she was at- 
tached. After much resistance she confessed 
to him the secret. In the height of his passion, 
he besought his mistress to allow him to unite 
with her in the only way which was practicable : 
she consented to every thing and soon became 
pregnant. The delivery of an infant took place 


at the proper time by the anus. Louis made 
this the subject of a thesis, and was prosecuted' 
by the parliament of Paris ; and the doctors 
of the Sorbonne interdicted him for addressing 
to the casuists the following question : — " In 
uxore, sic disposita, uti fas sit, vel non ] judi- 
cent theologi morales."* • The pope, however, 
more philosophic than the parliament or the 
Sorbonne, gave absolution to Mons. Louis, and 
his thesis was published in 1754. 


(From Hawkins's Life of Johnson.) 

Mr. Dyson and Dr. Akenside were fellow- 
students, the one of law and the other of phy- 
sic, at Leyden ; where, being of congenial tem- 
pers, a friendship commenced between them 
that lasted through their lives. They left the 
University at the same time, and both settled 
in London. Mr. Dyson took to the bar; and 
being possessed of a handsome fortune, sup- 
ported his friend while he was endeavouring to 
make himself known as a physician ; but, in 
a short time, having purchased of Mr. Har- 
dinge, his place of clerk of the House of Com- 
mons, he quitted Westminster Hall, and for 

* Let moral theologians judge, whether in a wife 
thus formed, the action was lawful or not. 


the purpose of introducing Akenside to ac- 
quaintance in an opulent neighbourhood near 
the town, bought a house at North-End, Hamp- 
stead, where they dwelt together during the sum- 
mer season; frequenting the long room, and 
all clubs and assemblies of the inhabitants. 

At these meetings, which, as they were not 
select, must be supposed to have consisted of 
such persons as usually meet for the purpose 
of gossiping, men of wealth, but of ordinary 
endowments, and able to talk of little else than 
news and the occurrences of the day, Akenside 
was for displaying those talents which had ac- 
quired him the reputation he enjoyed in other 
companies ; but here they were of little use to 
him — on the contrary, they tended to engage 
him in disputes that betrayed him into a con- 
tempt of those that differed in opinion from 
him. It was found out that he was a man of 
low birth and a dependant on Mr. Dyson, 
circumstances that furnished those whom he 
offended with a ground of reproach, that re- 
duced him to the necessity of asserting, in 
direct terms, that he was a gentleman. 

Little could be done at Hampstead, after mat- 
ters had proceeded to this extremity ; Mr. Dy- 
son parted with his villa at North-end, and 
settled his friend in a small house in Blooms- 
bury-square, assigning for his support such 


a part of his income as to enable him to keep 
a chariot. 

In this new situation, Akenside used every 
endeavour to become popular, but defeated 
them all by the high opinion he every where 
manifested of himself, and the little condescen- 
sion he shewed to men of inferior endowments ; 
and by his love of political controversy, his autho- 
ritative censure of the public councils, and his 
bigotted notions respecting government; sub- 
jects foreign to his profession, he not a little 
added to the public obloquy which was, as he 
became more known, heaped upon him. In the 
winter evenings, he frequented Tom's coffee- 
house, in Devereux Court, then the resort of 
some of the most eminent men for learning and 
ingenuity of the time ; with some of whom he 
became entangled in disputes and altercations 
chiefly on subjects of literature and politics, that 
fixed on his character the stamp of haughtiness 
and self-conceit, and often drew him into dis- 
agreeable situations. 

There was at that time a man of the name 
of Ballow, who used to pass his evenings in 
the society above-mentioned, a lawyer by pro- 
fession, but of no practice ; he having, by the 
interest of some of the Townshends, to whom 
he had been a kind of law tutor, obtained a 
place in the exchequer, which yielded him a 

MKDICAL Mf:N. 233 

handsome income, and exempted him from 
the necessity of attending Westminster Hall. 
He was a man of deep learning, but of vulgar 
manners ; and, being of a splenetic temper, 
envied Akenside for that eloquence which he 
displayed in his conversation, and set his own 
phraseology very low. Moreover, he hated him 
for his republican principles ; and finally, being 
himself a man of solid learning, affected to 
treat him as a pretender to literature, and made 
it his study to provoke him. 

One evening, at the coffee-house, a dispute 
between these two persons rose so high, that 
for some expression uttered by Ballow, Aken- 
side thought himself obliged to demand an 
apology ; which not being able to obtain, he 
sent his adversary a challenge in writing. Bal- 
low, a little deformed man, well known as a 
saunterer in the Park about Westminster, and 
in Parliament-street, though remarkable for a 
sword of an unusual length, which he con- 
stantly wore when he went abroad, had no 
inclination for fighting, and declined an answer. 
The demand of satisfaction was followed by 
several attempts on the part of Akenside to see 
Ballow at his lodgings; but he kept close, till 
by the interposition of friends the difference 
could be adjusted. By his conduct in this 
business, Akenside acquired but little reputation 


for courage; for the accommodation was not 
brought about by any concessions of his adver- 
sary, but by a resolution from which neither of 
them would depart, for one would not fight in 
the morning, nor the other in the afternoon : 
all that he got by it was, the character of an 
irascible man ; and thus many who admired him 
for his genius and parts, were shy of becoming 
his intimates. Yet, where there was no com- 
petition for applause, or literary reputation, 
he was an easy companion, and would bear 
with such rudeness as would have almost an- 
gered any other person. Saxby, of the Custom- 
house, who was every evening at Tom's, and by 
the bluntness of his behaviour, and the many 
shrewd sayings he was used to ' utter, had 
acquired the privilege of Thersites, of saying 
whatever he liked, was once rather coarsely 
inveighing against the profession of physic, 
which Akenside took upon him to defend. 
This railer, after labouring to prove it was all 
imposture, concluded his discourse with this 
sentiment: " Doctor," said he, " after all you 
have said, my opinion of the profession of phy- 
sic is this — the ancients endeavoured to make 
it a science and failed; and the moderns to 
make it a trade, and have succeeded." Aken- 
side took this sarcasm in good part, and joined 
in the laugh which it occasioned. 


Dr. Akenside's example shews that no higher 
a character than is attainable by any one who 
with a studious taciturnity will keep his 
opinions to himself, conform to the practice 
of others, and entertain neither friendship for, 
nor enmity against any one, a competitor for 
the good opinion of the world, nay for its 
emoluments and even dignities, stands a better 
chance of success than one of the most estab- 
lished reputation for learning and ingenuity ; 
tor Akenside, in a competition for the place of 
physician to the Charter-house, was unable to 
prevail against an obscure man, devoid of every 
quality that might serve to recommend him, 
and whose sole merit was thac of being dis- 
tantly related to the late Lord Holland. 


The splendid anatomical collection of pro- 
fessor Meckel of Halle is to be sold, a circum- 
stance arising chiefly from the establishment 
of an university in Berlin, which has much 
injured the Prussian Universities, and particu- 
larly that of Halle. From 1800 to 1806, there 
was in Halle 1560 students, of them 120 were 
medical; there are now not more than 600 stu- 
dents, and only forty of them medical. The 
commissioners invested with the examination of 
medical practitioners in Prussia, being resident 


at Berlin, having, since the establishment of an 
university in that city, favoured their own 
pupils so much that the other universities have 
become deserted. — s. 


Physic and midwifery are two very different 
things, which may be learned and practised by 
persons of very different capacities and educa- 
tion, nay, even of different sexes. It is just 
as possible for a man to be a good physician 
without being a midwife, as it is for a discreet 
sober woman, who has borne three or four 
children, to be a good midwife without being a 
physician. They may even have known, that 
the most eminent physicians, both in ancient 
and modern times, from Hippocrates to Dr. 
Cullen inclusive, were not Midwives. They 
may also have conceived, that Dr. Cullen, 
whose talents contributed so much to raise and 
support the character of the medical school of 
Edinburgh, and on whose skill his friends and 
their families relied with confidence when health 
and life were at stake, would have made almost 
as bad a figure, if called on to play the mid- 
wife's part, as a good motherly woman of a 
midwife would do if she were dressed in his 
gown and wig, placed in his academic chair, 

mkdicai. m;:n. 237 

and desired to teach the theory and practice of 

As the practice of midwifery by men is very 
fashionable, and as every person should learn 
what he intends to practise, it is veiy proper 
there should be professors, and that students 
should have every opportunity of learning it. 
But as many students of medicine never mean 
to practise midwifery, it would be unreasonable 
and unjust to compel them to learn it; more 
especially as, notwithstanding the influence of 
fashion, there are many young men to whom 
it is peculiarly disgusting; and many wise and 
good men, and women too, of all ages, to whom 
the practice of midwifery by men is an abomi- 
nation, which degrades the character of the one 
sex, and sullies the purity of the other. Many 
physicians are of this opinion. The Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians in London does not admit 
as a fellow any man who practises midwifery. 
A licentiate in physic may practise midwifery 
without forfeiting his general medical licence ; 
but, in this College, they have licentiates for 
midwifery only, who are not entitled to prac- 
tise physic. 

The Royal College of Physicians at Edin- 
burgh has lately allowed them to become fel- 
lows; for various reasons, which it is needless 
here to consider. Dr. Gregory says, " I shall 


only say, that I espoused their cause, not for 
any esteem I have for their art, which I never 
studied, because I was resolved never to prac- 
tise it, but because I hate all invidious distinc- 
tions, and every thing that has the appearance 
of an illiberal and corporation spirit; and 
because I can see no good reason why those 
men who pretend to help folk into the world, 
and those who pretend to keep them in it, or, 
as the malevolent presume to say, who help 
them out of it, may not live on good terms with 
one another, and from time to time drink a 
glass of claret together, ' to the memory of 
their deceased benefactors !'— Besides, I am 
clearly of opinion, that it is not for physicians, 
but those who employ them, to decide who 
are to be deemed physicians. If people chose 
to regard not only male but female midwives 
as physicians, and to call them Doctors, I think 
we should gain neither honour nor advantage 
by disputing the rights and privileges of the 
learned sisters." 

These reflections on midwifery and midwives 
are taken from some animadversions written 
by Dr. Gregory, on a pamphlet published by 
one J. Johnson, purporting to be a guide for 
the students of medicine in the university of 



The history of various articles of diet and 
medicine will amply prove how much their repu- 
tation and fate have depended upon authority. 
For instance, it was not until many years after 
ipecacuanha had been imported into England, 
that Helvetius, under the patronage of Louis 
XIV., succeeded in introducing it into practice; 
and to the praise bestowed by Katherine, queen 
of Charles II., on tea, we are indebted for its 
general introduction into England. 


At the commencement of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, medical knowledge seems to have been at 
a very low ebb.« Gilbert, the Englishman, the 
oldest writer on the subject in our language, 
is said, by Dr. Freind, to have borrowed all his 
science from the Arabian writers. John de 
Gaddesden, whose Rosa Anglica is a compen- 
dium of the whole practice of physic used in 
England, in his time, and who has been con- 
sulted by princes, and commended by Geoffry 
Chaucer, appears, by some of his recipes, to 
have been extremely ignorant, or rather, per- 
haps, to have given too much attention to the 
prejudices of his patients, and to have used 


auxiliary modes of practice, which would now 
be laughed at, by many, as highly absurd. In 
curing a son of Edward II. of the small-pox, he 
wrapped him up in scarlet cloth, and hung scar- 
let curtains round his bed ! As a remedy for the 
epilepsy, he ordered the patient to be carried 
to church, to hear the mass during the fast, 
' quatuor temporum,' and, afterwards, to wear 
round his neck a verse of the day's gospel, writ- 
ten on a scroll by the priest. Yet, John de 
Gaddesden, in his Rosa Anglica, points out the 
way of rendering salt-water fresh, by distilla- 
tion, a discovery which has been thought to be 
of much more modern date. 


The justly celebrated Olairs Rudbeck, who 
was born at Arosia, in Sweden, in 1630, was 
professor of physic at Upsal, and founder of the 
botanic garden there, afterwards the scene of 
Linnseus's labours, and now said to be degraded 
to a potatoe ground ! 

Rudbeck was a skilful surgeon and anatomist. 
Conjointly with Thomas Bartholine, he disco- 
vered the lymphatics of the liver, and is record- 
ed to have performed the Caesarian section upon 
his own wife so successfully as to save both mo- 
ther and child; thus exhibiting a striking in- 



stance of marital intrepidity, as well as chirur- 
gical skill. 

In consequence, with his son, he undertook 
a magnificent botanical work, in folio, to be 
entitled " Campi Elysii," but an extensive fire 
at Upsal destroyed the greatest part of his la- 
bours on this subject. The remaining fragments 
have been since published by Sir James Edward 

Besides these scientific labours, he is well 
known by a large and profound historical and 
archaiological work, entitled " Atlantica sit? 
Mankeim," in 3 vols, folio ; in which he ad- 
vances that Sweden is the Atlantis of the an- 
cients, and the primitive abode of man, and 
traces their colonization from thence over the 
face of the globe. 

From what cause does it arise that the Caesa- 
rian operation, which is so often performed suc- 
cessfully on foreign females, should be so uni- 
formly fatal in England? We cannot doubt the 
skill and attention of our surgeons. We see no 
peculiar habits of life, in our females, which 
should render them less favourable subjects for 
the knife than foreign females. The best solu- 
tion seems to be the probability that no practi- 
tioner in midwifery wishes to have the odium of 
the death of the female ascribed to his operat- 



ing upon her, and hence the section is delayed 
until it is too late. — s. 


Was regularly graduated at Cambridge, both 
as Master of Arts and Doctor of Physic, and is 
entitled to notice as an eminent practising apo- 
thecary, his chemical opinions preventing his 
being received into the College, and practising 
as a physician in London. 

His nostrum, called potable gold, made, for 
some time, a great noise in the world ; and he 
published a defence of it in Latin, by no means 
devoid of learning and art; although, in the 
present improved state of chemistry and medi- 
cine, it would be thought destitute of solidity. 
The work is methodically divided into several 
chapters, in which he attempts to establish the 
possibility of making a potable gold; the great 
medicinal powers of the mineral kingdom; the 
superior virtues of gold ; and the claim, a pre- 
paration of that metal may have to be entitled 
an universal medicine. Dr. Anthony's book 
was attacked by several of the physicians, and 
particularly by Dr. Matthew Gwinne. But, not- 
withstanding the strongest opposition, on the 
part of the College of Physicians, Anthony- 
found means to engage the patronage of various 
persons of rank, and the good opinion of the 

MKD1CAL- MEN. 243 

people at large; to which the excellence of his 
moral character, his learning and easy address, 
did not a little contribute. He enjoyed the tri- 
umph of seeing his reputation, practice, and 
emoluments arrive at a great height. — s. 


Louis de Bills, more commonly known by the 
name of Bilsius, was a Flemish nobleman, who 
had an enthusiastic passion for anatomical pur- 
suits, and who devoted much time, and expend- 
ed much money in them. He was the author of 
several anatomical treatises, the most celebrated 
of which bears the quaint title of " Anatomia 
Incruenta," or Bloodless Anatomy. 

In this treatise he pretended that he had 
invented a new method, of which he made a 
secret, of performing dissections without effu- 
sion of blood, and of preserving and embalming 
dead bodies. 

He once possessed a large collection of these 
bodies or mummies. Ray, in his Travels, re- 
lates that, when he was at Brussels, May 1, 
1663, Ludovicus de Bills happened to be in 
that town ; he and Mr. Willoughby visited him, 
and saw five bodies, which he had with him, 
embalmed and preserved, after his newly-in- 
vented manner, entire, with all their entrails 
and bowels. Bills was then going to the Unt- 
il 2 


versity of Louvain, to make an agreement for 
the discovery of his art of embalming, and read- 
ing public anatomical lectures. 

This boasted mystery of the bloodless ana- 
tomy ended, like many other mysteries ; the 
mummies became putrid, and the noble preparer 
is said to have died of a consumption, brought 
on by the fetor emitted from his favourite, but 
decaying companions. Although the author 
made, during his life, a great noise and bustle, 
respecting this invention, it was never put in 
practice after his death. — s. 

Notwithstanding its fascinating powers, to- 
bacco has suffered romantic vicissitudes in its 
fame and character ; it has been successively 
opposed and commended by physicians, con- 
demned and eulogised by priests and kings,* 

* James the First wrote a philippic against it, entitled 
" A Counterblaste to Tobacco," in which the royal 
author, with more prejudice than dignity, informs his 
loving subjects, that " It is a custome loathsome to the 
eye, hatefull to the nose, painfull to the braine, dangerous 
to the lungs; and, in the black stinking fume thereof, neer- 
est resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of- the pit that 
is bottomlesse; and that, if he was to invite the Devill, he 
would give him three things, a pole [head] of salmon, a 
dish of ling, with mustard, and a pipe of tobacco for 


and proscribed and protected by governments ; 
whilst, at length, this once insignificant pro- 
duction of a little island, or an obscure district, 
has succeeded in diffusing itself through every 
climate, and in subjecting the inhabitants of 
every country to its dominion. The Arab cul- 
tivates it in the burning desert, the Laplander 
and Esquimaux risk their lives to procure a 
refreshment so delicious in their -wintry soli- 
tude; the seaman, grant him but this luxury, 
and he will endure, with cheerfulness, every 
other privation, and defy the fury of the raging 
elements; and, in the higher walks of civilized 
society, at the shrine of fashion, in the palace 
and in the cottage, the fascinating influence of 
this singular plant commands an equal tribute 
of devotion and attachment. 


Dr. Cheyne, in his " English Malady, or 
Treatise on Nervous Diseases," a book which, 
by our immediate predecessors, was held in 
great repute, as a manual for the nervous and 
delicate, relates the case of Colonel Townsend, 
who, for many years, had been afflicted with 
a nephritic complaint, often passing a wheyish 
liquor with his urine, and attended with fre- 
quent vomitings. During the whole time of his 
illness he had observed the strictest regimen, 


drinking asses milk daily, even when encamped, 
and for common drink Bristol water. 

His illness increasing, and his strength decay- 
ing, he went to Bath on a litter, and lay at the 
Bell inn, where he sent for Drs. Baynard and 
Cheyne to attend him. After about a week's 
attendance, his vomitings still continuing, he 
settled his affairs, and desiring the two physi- 
cians and Mr. Skrine, the apothecary, to attend 
one morning, he told us, says Dr. Cheyne, 
he had sent for us to give him some account 
of an odd sensation he had for some time ob- 
served and felt in himself, which was that 

" He could die or expire when he pleased, and yet, 
by an effort, or somehow, he could come to life again. 
which, it seems,, he had sometimes tried before he sent 
for us. He insisted so much on our seeing the trial made, 
that we were at last forced to comply. We all three felt 
his pulse first; it was distinct, though small and thready, 
and his heart had its usual beating. He composed him- 
self on his back, and lay, in a still posture, for some time ; 
while I held his right hand, Dr. Baynard laid his hand on 
his heart, and Mr. Skrine held a clear looking-glass to his 
mouth. I found his pulse sink gradually, till at last I could 
not feel any by the most true and exact touch. Dr. Bay- 
nard could not feel the least motion in his heart; nor Mr. 
Skrine perceive the least breath on the bright mirror he 
held to his mouth. Then each of us by turns examined 
his arm, heart, and breath, but could not, by the nicest 
scrutiny, discover the least symptom of life in him. We 
reasoned a long time about this odd appearance, as well 


.is we could; and finding he still continued in that condi- 
tion, we began to conclude he had carried the experiment 
too far ; and, at last, we were satisfied that he was actually 
dead, and were just ready to leave him. This continued 
about half-an-hour, but, as we were going away, we ob- 
served some motion about the body; and, upon examina- 
tion, found his pulse, and the motion of his heart gradu- 
ally returning. He began to breathe gently, and speak 
sofdy : we were all astonished, to the last degree, at this 
unexpected change; and, after some further conversation 
with him, and with ourselves, went away fully satisfied as 
to all the particulars of this fact." 

He afterwards sent for his attorney, added 
a codicil to his will, received the sacrament, 
and calmly and composedly expired about five 
or six o'clock that evening. 

The next day his body, according to his own 
direction, was opened, all the internal parts of 
which were found extremely sound, except the 
right kidney. This was four times the proper 
size, distended like a blown bladder, elastic, 
and, on being opened, was found quite full of 
a white earthlike matter resembling plaster of 
Paris. — -s. 


In the practice of surgery, there are, also, 
many essential qualities requisite on the part of 
the surgeon. The first of which is, neatness in 
the application of his remedies, for awkward- 
ness, in this respect, will frequently injure his 


professional prospects. The patient and his 
friends will often judge of a man's skill by his 
manner of bleeding, or from the application of 
a bandage; for, as it is sometimes expressed, 
! the hand spoils the head.' The next is, gen- 
tleness in manner; patients having a natural 
dislike to operations, feel still more uneasy if 
they discover any thing in their practitioner's 
behaviour that gives them reason to apprehend 
rough treatment. Violence, in all cases bad, 
is sometimes attended by fatal consequences. 

But the quality which is considered of the 
highest order in surgical operations, is self-pos- 
session. The head must always direct the 
heart; otherwise the operator is unfit to disco- 
ver an effectual remedy for unforeseen accidents 
that may occur in his practice. Without this 
quality a man may do very well in ordinary 
cases, but can do little on sudden emergency; 
it inspires confidence, and almost ensures a 
successful operation. 

In all cases, it is the duty of the surgeon 
never to advise an operation unless there is a 
probability of its being attended with success. 
He should here, as in every instance, do unto 
others as he would have others do unto him. 
Let it always be remembered that operations 
cannot safely be undertaken by any man, unless 
he possess an intimate acquaintance with ana- 


tomy — the real ground-work of all surgical 
knowledge. It is a consolation, however, to 
know, that the human frame is better understood 
at the present epoch by students,* than it was 
forty years ago by professors. With us, the 
march of improvement has been most rapid ; 
and this has arisen principally from the assi- 
duity with which modern surgeons have pur- 
sued their dissecting-room avocations. A few 
years since, all operations were attended with 
hazard; those now undertaken commonly do 
well, a circumstance referable only to our in- 
creased information. An old surgeon, now de- 
ceased, said, ' That operations for extracting 
stones from the bladder put him in mind of 
sailing between Scylla and Charybdis.' — It was 
replied, ' that it certainly was silly not to at- 
tempt them!' Tis true these operations require 
the most perfect anatomical skill, as do those 
for hernia, aneurism, and fractures of the bones 
of the head, attended with depression. 

Anatomy, likewise, teaches how to discrimi- 

* It were well did the majority of these students retain 
their anatomical knowledge on going into practice; un- 
fortunately, this is the case with few. The only essential 
purpose it would, nay, in fact it does appear, for which 
a knowledge of anatomy is acquired, is to be able to pass 
examination at Surgeons'-hall. After this ordeal — adieu 
Vanatomie ! En. 


nate disease, in which lies more than half the cure. 
From a want of it dislocation frequently cannot 
be detected; whereby the patient may become 
miserable for life, and the reputation of the sur- 
geon for ever destroyed. It was observed, by 
Sir Astley Cooper, from whose mouth these 
remarks were collected, that some years since 
one of the profession called on him, whom he 
had long known, but had not seen for many 
years. Sir A. naturally inquired after his pro- 
gress. The reply was, that his life had been 
like April, sometimes sunshine, sometimes rain. 
' How so? You have brought up a family gen- 
teelly, and have, I understand, a respectable 
practice.' — ' True,' rejoined the practitioner, 
' but a circumstance occurred, some time ago, 
that has given me much uneasiness. I was 
called to attend a case of dislocation at the 
shoulder-joint, but it so happened that I could 
not discover it.* After attending him for a 
considerable time, another surgeon was request- 
ed to see him, who, at once, pronounced the 

* A proof of what is advanced in the preceding note ; 
that knowledge hastily and imperfectly acquired is not 
established upon a firm basis. It also contradicts the 
assertion of the learned professor, on his own shewing, 
from actual experience, that the majority of the practi- 
tioners of the present day are not near so well acquainted 
with anatomv. as the barber-surgeons of old. Ed. 


bone to be out, which in reality was the case, 
for in a very short time he reduced it. When 
the man recovered, he brought an action against 
me, and I had to pay 200Z. damages, and the 
law expenses cost me 2001. more. The loss of 
the money I did not feel ; but I have severely 
felt being pointed at as an ignorant man.' 


The reigns of the two first George's have been 
justly denominated the reign of licentiousness ; 
and those of Elizabeth and of the first James, 
the reign of monopoly. The ancient land pos- 
sessions of the crown having been, by gifts to 
the partizans engaged in the civil wars of York 
and Lancaster, reduced to the bare means of 
defraying the expence of the royal household, 
accruing to it by the suppression of the monas- 
teries (an action arising from this very poverty) 
having been exhausted in rewarding the adhe- 
rents of the throne, during the reigns of Henry 
and his two immediate successors, Elizabeth 
and her successor were driven to use every 
species of invention to reward their followers. 
Among these financial inventions, patents of 
monopoly were in most general use, as grants 
to the creditors of the crown, who either exacted 
a quarterly allowance from those who continued 
in the trade, or sold the grant to speculators 


who engaged in it themselves ; those who had 
formerly been occupied in that kind of com- 
merce being usually allowed four months to 
sell off their stock. Of course, as the men in 
power were almost universally interested in 
some one monopoly or another, they felt an 
interest in supporting them. 

The College of Physicians, who had the mo- 
nopoly of the practice of physic in London and 
its environs, granted to them by Henry VIII., 
took advantage of this favour, shewn to mono- 
polies, to bring actions against persons who, at 
the present day, would not be thought to come 
in the least within their jurisdiction. They pro- 
secuted Fairfax, Antony, Dee, and Tennant, 
for selling medicines, wrapped in a printed bill 
of their virtues. One Phillips, a distiller, was 
prosecuted because he gave, along with his 
cordials, a printed account of what they were 
esteemed good for. Aires, a confectioner, who 
sold purging sugar-plumbs for children, fell 
under the power of the College and Star- 

To so great an extent was this purgation of 
London from empirics (as the practitioners, not 
belonging to the College, were usually called) 
carried, that one Dr. Hunt was prosecuted for 
the mere notification to the public of the place 
of his residence. Had cards of address been 

MEDICAL ?!K\. 253 

then in use, the giving of one by a physician 
would, it appears from this last instance, have 
been considered as a public crime. The e.x- 
pence of law-suits, however to be deplored in 
most instances, has yet one good effect in di- 
minishing the number of these prosecutions, as 
the College would not be able to stand the sur- 
plus expences of many suits, although they 
might succeed and recover costs. — s. 


Morgagni mentions a man in whom the epi- 
glottis was wanting, though he spoke and swal- 
lowed without difficulty. 

Vicq. D'Azir relates a case of a man in whom 
there was a dilatation of the oesophagus resem- 
bling the crop of birds. In swallowing, the 
food passed into the sac, and there remained 
till he vomited it up; this man died ex- 

A young woman had a difficulty of swallow- 
ing from her infancy. Towards the period of 
menstruation it got worse, and the disease in- 
creased rapidly, and was always aggravated by 
exercise. At length deglutition became impos- 
sible, and the poor young woman died. On 
dissection, the cause of the malady was found 
to be an aberration in the course of the subcla- 
vian artery, which passed between the trachea 


and oesophagus, compressing the latter, and 
preventing deglutition. 


The art of the angler probably preceded the 
occupation of the shepherd, and may be pro- 
nounced, at least, coeval with that of the hun- 
ter. A diet of fish, it is well known, is still 
found to constitute almost the sole food of manv 
savage communities. 

Many ichthyophagous nations are mentioned 
by the ancients; still more have been discovered 
by the moderns. Among the last may be no- 
ticed the savages on the coast of New Albion ; 
the Algonquin tribes, on the shores of Lake 
Superior, with a thousand others. It is likely 
that shell-fish, found on the sides of the sea, or 
of rivers, obtained without labour or contri- 
vance of any kind, might furnish the first exam- 
ple of this species of aliment ventured upon 
mankind. — s. 


Aubrey has collected a number of anecdotes 
relating to his cotemporaries, which either escap- 
ed the notice of other biographers, or were con- 
sidered by them as too trifling to be recorded ; 
some of them, nevertheless, are very piquant 
and agreeable to us at this time, as they shew 


the habits and manners of our immediate pre- 

From this amusing collector we learn, that 
Dr. Thomas Willis was first servitor to Dr. 
lies, a canon of Christchurch, and shewed some 
shrewdness and inquisitive scrutiny. lies' wife 
dabbled in physic, and Willis, habited in his blue 
coat, the usual livery, in those days, of the serv- 
ing men, or servitors, as they were classically 
called, afforded her considerable assistance. 

He lost no opportunity for improving himself; 
and his knowledge, in various cases, did him 
great credit, and obtained him a wide reputation. 

After the lapse of some years, he attended, 
in conjunction with Dr. Lydall, Abingdon mar- 
ket, for the purpose of giving advice, where, 
by his skilful treatment, and some successful 
results, he still more deeply founded his repu- 
tation, and enlarged the circle of his patients. 
At this time their funds were so slender, that 
they had but one horse between them. 

Dr. Willis studied chemistry in Canterbury 
college; but his genius lay more towards ma- 
thematics; many of his problems were acute and 
subtle. Upon the whole he was a man of intense 
study, and this he was not backward to expose 
to the public; increase of business and esteem 
were the effects, and these he enjoyed largely. 

Aubrey, in his gossiping humour, states Dr. 


Willis to be of the middle stature, with dark 
red hair, like a red pig, and that he stammered 
much in his speech. He was evidently of very 
religious habits ; the fees, &c. received for his 
practice upon Sundays, and upon church holi- 
days, were devoted to the poor; and, becoming- 
conscious that the necessary avocations of ser- 
vants prevented them from attending the ser- 
vice of the church, at the usual hours, he left 
a sum of money to the parish of St. Martin's in 
the Fields, in which he died, that divine service 
might also be performed at seven o'clock in 
the morning, so that these might be enabled to 
attend before the commencement of their usual 
employments. — s. 


A young Portuguese lady, instead of a 
tongue, had only a small eminence resembling 
a nipple. This eminence had a slight con- 
tractile and expansive motion ; and yet this 
young lady contrived to speak distinctly, though 
she was forced to use her finger in pushing the 
chewed aliment back towards the pharynx to 
be swallowed ! 


This apothecary has so greatly contributed to 
promote the study of botany in this country, 
that he merits some notice to be taken of his 


life before the lapse of years shall have entirely 
erased him from our minds. 

Mr. Curtis was the eldest son of Mr. John 
Curtis, of Alton, Hampshire, who carried on the 
business of a tanner. He was born in the year 
1746; and, in the eighth year of his age, he 
was placed under the care of Mr. Vinder, who, 
at that time, kept a very respectable school 
about a mile from that town. Mr. Curtis re- 
mained at this seminary, under Mr. Vinder, and 
his successor Mr. Docker, till his fourteenth 
year, when, to his great regret, (for he now 
began to relish, and to know the value of clas- 
sical acquisitions) he was taken away and bound 
apprentice to his grandfather, an apothecacy at 

It was during his apprenticeship that Mr. 
Curtis was led to his first studies in botany. 
The house contiguous to that in which Mr. 
Curtis lived, was the Crown Inn; and the host- 
ler, a John Lagg, a sober steady man, was a 
person of uncommonly strong sense, and though 
an unlettered man, yet, with the assistance of 
Gerard's and Parkinson's unwieldy volumes, 
had gained so complete a knowledge of plants, 
that not one could be brought to him which he 
could not name without hesitation. 

This struck the inquisitive Curtis forcibly, 
and brought into action those powers which 

VOL. III. s 


have made him so famous. In a very short 
time his indefatigable zeal had made him prac- 
tically acquainted with most of the wild plants 
of his neighbourhood, especially those which 
related to medicine. 

On coming to London, Mr. Curtis attended 
the lectures of Dr. George Fordyce, senior phy- 
sician to St. Thomas's hospital. Dr. Fordyce, 
convinced of the necessity of botanical know- 
ledge to medical students, was in the practice 
of accompanying his pupils into the fields and 
meadows near town, for the purpose of instruct- 
ing them in the principles of the science of 

On these occasions Mr. Curtis frequently had 
the honour of assisting the doctor in demon- 
strating the plants. Not unfrequently the task 
of demonstration was confided wholly to Mr. 
Curtis. Not long after this association, Mr. 
Curtis himself gave public lectures on botany, 
and took with him his pupils into the fields and 
woods in the neighbourhood of London. 

Nothing could be more pleasant than these 
excursions ; at dinner-time the plants collected 
in the walk were produced and demonstrated; 
but the demonstration was enlivened with all 
that fund of natural humour which was a pre- 
vailing trait in Mr. Curtis's disposition. 

Mr. Curtis now became known to gentlemea 


of the first abilities in the knowledge of natural 
history ; among the rest to Mr. Alchorne of the 
Mint. This gentleman had officiated, pro tem- 
pore, as demonstrator of botany to the society 
of apothecaries, on the resignation of Mr. Hud- 
son; and, conceiving that it would be both 
honourable and advantageous to Mr. Curtis to 
be placed in that situation, he recommended 
him in the handsomest terms to the society, and 
he was accordingly chosen to that office. He 
continued in this situation several years; but, 
at length, finding it interfere too much with his 
professional duties, resigned it. 

In conjunction with Mr. Thomas White, book- 
seller, in Fleet-street, Mr. Curtis occupied a 
very small garden, for the culture of British 
plants, near the Grange-road, Bermondsey. It 
was here that he first conceived the design of 
publishing his great work, the " Flora Londi- 
nensis." This garden was soon found too small 
for Mr. Curtis's extensive ideas; he, therefore, 
took a larger piece of ground in Lambeth 
Marsh, where he cultivated the largest collec- 
tion of British plants ever brought together into 
one place. But there was something ungenial 
in the air of this place, which made it extremely 
difficult to preserve sea-plants, and many of 
the rare annuals, which are adapted to an ele- 
vated situation ; and this difficulty was render- 
s 2 


ed greater every year by the increasing numbesr 
of buildings around. 

His active mind, which was ever anxious for 
improvement, of course sought for a more favour- 
able soil; and this he at length found at Bromp- 
ton. Here he procured a spacious territory, 
in which he had the pleasure of seeing hia 
wishes gratified to the utmost extent; and here 
he continued until his death. 

About the year 1787, he projected the plan 
of his " Botanical Magazine." What the sterl- 
ing merit of his Flora could not accomplish, 
this, comparatively speaking, inferior perform- 
ance procured. The nature of this publication 
had in it such a captivation, was so easily pur- 
chased, and executed with so much taste and 
accuracy, that, at once, it became popular ; and 
from its unvaried continuance in excellence and 
popularity, continued to be a mine of wealth to 
him, and its profits are said to have amounted 
to 6001. a-year, which he enjoyed to his death, 
contributing, at the same time, not a little to 
the increase of his botanical fame, from the 
number of original and excellent observations 
interspersed through the work. 

In ornithology Mr. Curtis was no mean adept. 
Although his musical powers were not beyond 
the common level ; yet, in one respect, he shew- 
ed an exact ear. No bird could utter a note, 


whether its usual one, or that of love, or 
that of fear and surprise, but he could, from 
the sound, determine from what species it pro- 
ceeded. He often regretted that he had not 
the power of imparting this knowledge. His 
skill, in this particular, has enlivened many a 
herborization, both in waste wilds and thick 
embarrassing woods. 

Mr. Curtis had been, originally, one of the 
■ociety of friends, but his lively convivial dis- 
position was at variance with their moral habits, 
and he either relinquished them, or they relin- 
quished him. His conviviality, indeed, led him 
too frequently to indulge in excessive potation. 



" To what base purposes we must come, Horatio !" 


11 In the year 1563, Dr. Langton, a physi- 
cian, rid in a car, with a gown of damask, lined 
with velvet, and a coat of velvet, and a cap of 
the same, (such, it seems, doctors then wore) 
but having a blue hood pinned over his cap; 
which was (as it seems) a customary mark of 
guilt. And so came through Cheapside on a 
market day. His crime was {monstrum horren- 
dum .') that he was taken in bed with two young 
wenches at once!" O fie, Dr. Langton ' — Strype't 
edit. o/Stowe'sSurv. of London. 



It has been said that Dean Swift was Dr. 
Monsey's model ; and, as far as ruling the com- 
pany, and guiding the conversation of those with 
whom he associated, there certainly was a strong 
resemblance. In this department they were both 
rather tyrannical; for he who seldom meets with 
his equal, either in parts or in power, is too apt 
to expect deference and submission from all. 

One of Dr. Monsey's axioms brings to our 
mind a similar but unfortunate taste in Swift, 
Medico et philosopho nihil indecens. 

The author of the ' Ladies' Dressing-room,' 
and a man* who produced (as Dr. Monsey did) 
an almond, which he boasted had travelled four 
times down his throat, could neither of them be 
very nice, though, according to a doctrine of the 
Dean, they both abounded in nasty ideas. 


Two friends having been taken ill much about 
the same time, one of them recovered his health 
a considerable time before the other, upon which 
some surprise being expressed, the first conva- 
lescent observed, " He had nothing but his dis- 
order to contend with, but that his friend had 
that and the doctor into the bargain." 

* The Adventures of an Almond. 



When Captain Cartwright lay sick in his tent, 
as he relates in his ' Journal of Sixteen Years' 
Residence on the Coast of Labrador,' at a dis- 
tance from his own people, and surrounded only 
by the Esquimaux, solemn ceremonies, he states, 
were instituted during the night, by these In- 
dians, for his recovery. Part of them consisted 
of such hideous yells as were never uttered by 
human beings, and which completely prevented 

The following mode of curing the head-ache 

he saw practised by his friend Attuiock, one of 

the priests of the tribe. The patient was the 

practitioner's own wife, and when Cartwright 

entered the room, he found her laid on the floor, 

with her hands by her sides; Attuiock sat so 

far back as to have her head opposite to his 

knees. He had placed a long strap under her 

head, which came over the forehead. In this 

strap he put the end of a strong stick, which he 

held in his hand across his knees. With great 

gravity, and in a low doleful cadence, he sung 

a song, frequently laying a strong emphasis on 

some particular word, which, says the narrator, 

I did not understand ; at the same time, by the 

help of a lever, he raised her head as high as 

the length of her neck would permit, and then 


let it bump down again upon the floor, keeping 
time to the tune. As I supposed it was a reli- 
gious rite, he being a priest, I silently observed 
what was going forward. At length the old gea- 
tleman, fixing his eyes on me, pointed to his 
wife with an important look, and said, " It is 
very good." — " That may be," said I, " but 
pray what is it good for ?" — " My wife has got 
the head-ache," answered the priest. 

A similar plan of treating, chiefly the same 
disease, as we learn from Crantz, is pursued 
among the kindred tribes of Greenland. — *. 


The late Lord R , with many good qua- 
lities, even with learning and parts, had a 
strange desire of being thought skilful in physic 
and surgery, and was very expert at bleeding. 
Lord Chesterfield, who knew his foible, and, on 
a particular occasion, wished to have his vote, 
came to him one morning, and, after having 
conversed upon different subjects, complained 
of the head-ache, and desired his lordship to 
feel his pulse. It was found to beat high, 
and a hint of losing blood given. I have no 
objection, and, as I hear your lordship has a 
masterly hand, will you favour me with trying 
your lancet upon me ? • A-prop6s,' said Lord 
Chesterfield, after the operation, ' do you go 


to the house to-day?' Lord R. answered, ' I 
did not intend to go, not being sufficiently in- 
formed of the question that is to be debated; 
but you, who have considered it, which side 
will you be of?' The Earl, having gained his 
confidence, easily directed his judgment; he 
carried him to the house, and got him to vote 
as he pleased. He used afterwards to say, that 
none of his friends had done as much as him- 
self, having literally bled for the good of his 
country. — Medical Anecdotes. 


If the missionaries, who are sent by the west- 
ern Christians, to change the religion of the 
Pagans of the eastern nations, were well versed 
in the science of chemistry, and if they did but 
dazzle the eyes of those ignorant people with a 
great many curious and useful experiments in 
this fundamental branch of physic, they would, 
perhaps, make as deep impressions upon their 
minds, and give them as convincing testimonies 
of the power and legality of their mission, as 
they can, at present, by the spiritual or indeli- 
ble character they say is inherept in them. 

Pope Clement X. knew well the effects which 
chemistry, artfully applied, might produce in the 
minds of ignorant people, when he secured the 
person of the famous Italian Dr. Borri, who, 


about 1660, by his skill in chemistry, did work 
several extraordinary cures of diseases in Ger- 
many, and gained such universal reputation, 
all over the empire and the northern kingdoms, 
that, (as it is reported of him) he thought he 
had credit and opportunity sufficient to invent 
and propagate a new religion, by making his 
surprising experiments in chemistry pass for 
miracles; which they might easily have done, 
since chemistry being then in its minority, was 
not much known in the world. But the Pope 
foreseeing the ill-consequence such a design 
might produce, gave timely orders to his nun- 
cio, then at Vienna, to desire the emperor to 
get him seized, which being accordingly done, 
he was sent prisoner to Rome, on condition, 
nevertheless, that his life should be safe. 

Here he was imprisoned, in the Castle of St. 
Angelo, for several years, and a laboratory 
allowed him for his diversion. Nobody was 
admitted to discourse with him without special 
leave. He died in this prison. 

It is curious, that the apartments and labora- 
tory occupied by Dr. Borri, in the Castle of 
St. Angelo, should, in the course of a century, 
he again used for the confinement and amuse- 
ment of another enthusiastic chemist, the fa- 
mous Count Cagliostro. — & 



The Honorable Robert Boyle has somewhere 
remarked, that in proportion to the repugnance 
at first felt for a thing, is afterwards the fond- 
ness for it when once that repugnance is con- 
quered. Such is often the case with anatomy; 
to be daily and hourly conversant with dead and 
putrid carcases is, one would think, a shocking 
employment, and yet many, who at first shrunk 
from the sight, afterwards doat upon it. 

Rondeletius, who wrote an excellent treatise 
on fishes, was a celebrated teacher of anatomy 
and physic at Montpellier, having, by means of 
great exertions, obtained an anatomical theatre 
to be built there. In this theatre he is said to 
have publicly dissected the dead body of one of 
his own children ; in consequence of which he 
occurred much obloquy, for allowing his feel 
ings, as a parent, to be overcome by his ardour 
for anatomical enquiries. — s. 


If the following article, and others similar to 
it, be not selected from a scarce and curious 
source, it is equally curious and scarce in the 
modern annals of political medicine. 

There has been a very important trial in 


Paris — the culprit, a physician, accused of mur- 
der, by poisoning in a singular manner, and 
also of forging a will of the persons destroyed 
by his alleged criminality. Many parts of the 
evidence are highly interesting, though ren- 
dered, according to our manner of thinking, 
unnecessarily disgusting, and, in no small de- 
gree, ridiculous, by the usage, in the French 
criminal courts, of interrogating the accused. 
However, the peculiarity of this case, as far as 
medical interests are involved in it, seems to 
have been the choice, or the alleged choice, of 
the poison. 

In this examination, he admitted that he had made 
poisons the subject of study and experiment ; that he was 
acquainted with certain vegetable poisons which left no 
traces of their action ; and that he had purchased acetate 
of morphine to make experiments on animals. In the 
course of the trial., he admitted that one of the deceased 
persons, of poisoning whom he stood accused, had drank 
some hot wine at an inn where they both were; that a 
servant, who tasted it, found it sour ; and that, to his own 
knowledge, acetate of morphine would communicate a 
bitter taste ; that the deceased had vomited, and that the 
matter rejected had been thrown away. He ascribed the 
person's death, however, to cholera morbus. He further 
stated, that he mixed the acetate with an emetic for the 
purpose of the experiments. 

From the examination of the unfortunate 
prisoner, however^" we must confess that we do 
not gather any clear notions of the precise lethal 


act imputed to him — the questions seem to 
have reference to something already under- 
stood, but in no way explained. 

Several medical witnesses were examined ; 
and here it is proper for us to state, that we 
are in possession of no accounts concerning 
this interesting case, but such as have been 
published in the ordinary prints of the day. 

Laennec is represented as having said that the first per- 
son poisoned might have died of a phthisical complaint, 
under which he had laboured; and that the symptoms 
might have been produced by poison, which, as a man, 
he was strongly inclined to believe had been the case! 
Dr. Michel believed his death to have been owing to 
phthisis, and not to poison : He stated that the ordinary 
effect of acetate of morphine was narcotic, but it varied 
according to the constitution of the person taking it. 
Dr. Petit, on reading the defective report (proces verbal) 
thought the various symptoms could not have been 
produced by phthisis alone, but might be the result of 
poison. The prisoner asked this witness whether perip- 
neumoqy might not produce a paralysis of the brain ? 
which was admitted, as also that it was not impossible 
that it should cause a cerebral congestion sufficient to 
obstruct respiration. Being also asked by Castaing, whe- 
ther, in consumptive cases, congestions were not some- 
times found in the brain, lungs, and duodenum ? the 
fact was admitted, but not that they were caused by 
phthisis. The witness stated them to be the immediate 
and natural effects of death. Two apothecaries deposed 
that they both sold the prisoner acetate of morphine, 
and one of them twelve grains of sulphate of soda, which 
the prisoner said he had used as a laxative. There must 


be some mistake here. Orfila -was also examined; and 
the substance of his evidence is represented to be — thai, 
from the proces verbal, it was impossible to conclude that 
the deceased had been poisoned. The appearances there 
described might have been produced by the acetate of mor- 
phine, but they might also have been caused by a natural 
malady. He stated, that the smallest atom of this substance 
might be discovered in the stomach, being the easiest vege- 
table poison to be recognised, unless there had been frequent 
vomiting. He considered it to be an error that vegetable 
poisons could not be traced, and expressed himself con- 
fident that, under such circumstances, he should be able 
to detect half a grain of this salt. 

We have, in this notice, endeavoured to re- 
strict ourselves most rigidly to the medical 
bearings of the case ; but, in spite of our 
strongest resolutions, we cannot conceal some 
of our dissatisfactions. Here is an individual 
condemned and executed for an alleged crime, 
of a most extraordinary and (we will say, upon 
consideration of the means) improbable nature. 
He has suffered the sentence of decapitation 
for murder, of which, as British men, and men 
that jurymen are formed of, we say there was 
not evidence. In the first place, what is this 
acetate of morphine of morphia ? we will ven- 
ture to assert that, with the exception perhaps 
of Orfila, not one of the witnesses examined, 
with regard to its properties, had any practical 
knowledge of it whatever. Secondly, the whole 
of the medical evidence (as far as the public 


journals have revealed it to us), even if deli- 
vered exactly as it was in France, would, in 
this country, have been favourable to the ac- 
cused ; for it is characterised by doubt. Thirdly, 
we will take upon us to depart a step from our 
present province, and enter on one that is, 
nevertheless, more allied to our proper duties 
than might at first appear; saying, that there 
are few men of delicate mind, ordinary sensi- 
bility, and honourable feeling, who could, day 
after day, and hour after hour, endure the tor- 
turing, if not malignant, inquisition to which 
persons in the situation of the unfortunate Cas- 
taing are subjected in the enlightened and phi- 
lanthropic kingdom of France. Of what avail is 
the abolition of corporeal torture, when that of 
the mind is urged in the fullest force ? 

We refer our readers to the newspaper re- 
ports, in which we think the summing up of 
the avocat general, or, as we might here call it, 
the address of counsel for the prosecution, will 
fully bear us out in our preceding animadver- 
sions. It is very French, and what is very 
French is very theatrical. On the other hand, 
the address of the counsel for the prisoner, 
though well meant, is by no means such as we 
think an intelligent English barrister would 
have produced. The import of the evidence 
offered by scientific men, decidedly (as we 


should think) in favour of the prisoner, is over- 
looked. The advocate, however, in alluding to 
the general tenour of the evidence against his 
client, is reduced to the humiliating necessity 
(humiliating for his court) to say, that it would 
not have been listened to in England, where 
hearsay evidence is totally inadmissible. 

Of course, the evidence regarding the forgery 
of the will does not affect our view of the mat- 
ter, and we have therefore left it out of our 
notice. Upon this, and upon one only, of the 
charges of poisoning, Castaing was found 
guilty by a majority of seven jurymen to five. 
Med. Journal, 1824. 


Although the maxim, " follow my precepts 
and not my example," may certainly be more 
often proper in the mouths of priests than phy- 
sicians ; yet there are not wanting instances 
in which even physicians sin against their own 
better knowledge. The celebrated Rondeletius 
is well known to have died of a bowel com- 
plaint, occasioned by eating immoderately of 
green figs. 

Another medical practitioner, although he 
was well aware that toasted cheese subjected 
him to an alarming pulmonary complaint, yet 
could not refrain from eating it ; and, indeed, 


may be said to have killed himself by wilfully 
persisting in the use of this species of food. 

There is another English physician who 
cannot resist cramming himself with filberts, 
although obliged to confess, from his own ex- 
perience, that they are to him extremely indi- 
gestible and hurtful. — 5. 


Were proofs wanting, it might be difficult 
to mention any savage tribe so ignorant as not 
to know, for instance, the invariably lethal 
effects of wounding, or otherwise injuring the 
spinal marrow. Among the nations of Pagan 
antiquity, in sacrificing oxen, it was the custom, 
time immemorial, if we believe Oribasius, to 
destroy the animal by cutting asunder this im- 
portant part of his body. 

It is a prevailing opinion among the Ota- 
heitians, that the seat of the soul and of vitality 
must, without doubt, be alike referred to the 
stomach and intestines, and, in favour of this 
doctrine, arguments are urged by them not 
devoid of ingenuity. Thus, when Vancouver 
endeavoured to convince them of the paramount 
Importance of the brain, they only smiled, 
observing, at the same time, that they had 
often seen men survive injuries, even the most 

▼ OL. III. T 


severe, inflicted on the head, but that they 
never perceived them to recover from serious 
wounds, or other lesions of the intestinal tube. 
As a further proof was adduced by them, the 
superior degree of sensibility possessed by the 
abdominal viscera, demonstrated by the sick- 
ness, vomiting, and other disorders incident 
to those parts from mental causes, as fear and 
other violent passions. It is not unamusing, 
says Dr. Richard Millar, in his very excellent 
disquisitions in the History of Medicine, to 
meet with this approach to the tenets of Van 
Helmont in the distant isles of the sea. 


We cannot refuse our tribute of respect to 
those who, in spite of the most adverse circum- 
stances, persevere in their efforts to attain 
knowledge in the department to which their 
genius leads them, although it be not that in 
which their parents had educated them. 

He was a man of extraordinary parts, of low 
origin, but of great application, and therefore 
the raiser of his own fortune, which became 
very considerable. He was at first an appren- 
tice to some trade, thought to be a shoe-maker. 
He afterwards learned the business of a barber, 
and exercised it, and became eminent for draw- 
ing teeth; and Mr. H , his pupil, thinks 


he would have excelled in any other profession. 
He could hardly read at first, but learned, and 
by borrowing here and there a few physic books 
from his neighbours, he became a small prac- 
titioner, then extended his views to bone-set- 
ting, and at last became one of the most emi- 
nent surgeons in the kingdom, being noted far 
and near for his uncommon skill and success, and 
had great practice both at Barnet and London. 
He educated his son James at Oxford, who 
commenced M.D. and lived at Barnet, where 
he died about 1754 ; but his fame and abilities 
were never equal to those of his father, who 
died at a great age, about 1757. — s. 


In February, 1786, professor Meier, of Halle, 
was sent for by one of his pupils, a medical 
student who lay dangerously ill. The patient 
told his doctor, that he should certainly die, 
having had a warning dream to that effect. I 
wrote it down, he added, the morning after it 
happened, and laid it in a drawer, of which this 
is the key : when I am gone, read it over. 

On the 4th of March the student died. Pro- 
fessor Meier opened the drawer of the writing- 
desk, in which he found this narration : — 

" I thought I was walking in the church-yard 
of Halle, and admiring the great number of 
T 2 


excellent epitaphs, which are cut on the grave- 
stones there. Passing from one to another, 
I was struck by a plain tomb-stone, of which I 
went to read the inscription. With surprise I 
found upon it my own two forenames, and my 
surname, and that I died on the 4th of March. 
With progressive anxiety I tried to read the 
date of the year; but I thought there was 
moss over the fourth cypher of 178 — . I picked 
up a stone to scrape the figures clean, and just 
as I began to distinguish a 6, with fearful pal- 
pitation I awoke." 

Professor Meier related this anecdote in his 
lectures, as a proof of the influence of the mind 
in disease; this dream having caused its own 


The Egyptians are not the only people who 
practised embalming; traces of a similar art 
are discoverable amongst various rude commu- 
nities which the navigators of modern times 
have brought to light. 

Thus the Gaunches, an aboriginal tribe of 
TenerifFe, we are informed by Bishop Sprat, 
in his History of the Royal Society, were 
found so dexterous in this practice, as even to 
preserve the flexibility of the skin, together with 
the natural appearance of its vessels. 


Charlevoix in his travels relates, that the in- 
digense of Nova Scotia were observed, by the 
French missionaries, to dry and disembowel 
their dead. 

In Otaheite, so Vancouver observes, a pro- 
cess is known which completely prevents putre- 
faction for more than six months, notwithstand- 
ing the heat of the climate. 

This process, as we learn from the mission- 
aries, in their voyage to the South Pacific 
Ocean, consists in extracting the brain and 
viscera, then carefully washing and drying the 
cavities, and afterwards anointing daily both 
inside and outside with cocoa-nut oil, so 
that the whole fabric exhibits the appearance 
of a skeleton covered over with oil-cloth. 
It is then ready for being deposited on 
the stages or tupapows, where they preserve 
their dead. 

Vancouver likewise discovered in New 
Albion a number of very complete skeletons, 
partly of adults deposited in canoes, partly of 
children placed in baskets, both suspended 
from trees at the height of twelve feet from 
the ground. 

Numerous other instances of embalming 
might be readily collected from the records of 
rude communities, so as to shew that this road 
to anatomical knowledge had been very early 


laid open to mankind : as the natives of Oona- 
laska and Kadiak, two islands in the Archi- 
pelago betwixt Asia and Ameria, who preserve 
their dead with dry moss and grass. — s. 


" An adult, who died of dropsy, was opened. 
The liver and spleen were entirely wanting. 
The vena portse opened immediately into the 
inferior cava. We have nothing analogous to 
this case, says Foamier, upon record, but the 
authority of Lieutaud prevents us from rejecting 
it as suspicious." — Granting that this was the 
case, it does not detract from the importance 
of the hepatic functions in the animal economy, 
any more than the case of the Roman soldier 
proves the heart to be an unnecessary organ 
in the human frame. 


Although this gentleman, in the latter part 
of his life, became a political character, yet it 
appears, from that entertaining miscellany pub- 
lished from Aubrey's manuscripts in the Bod- 
leian library, that, in the earlier part of his life, 
he studied medicine, and was the first who read 
lectures at Oxford in practical anatomy. 

Aubrey, who had a considerable penchant 
to astrology, tells, with minute exactness, that 


Petty was born the 26th of May, in the year 
1623, at 56 seconds, 42 minutes past eleven 
o'clock at night. This extreme nicety to se- 
conds of a minute shews that he had calculated 
Petty's nativity, and to use the technical term, 
rectified it by the considerations arising from 
the accidents which had already happened to 
that gentleman. 

According to the gossiping information of 
Aubrey, Sir William was originally a sea-ap- 
prentice, but had a smattering of Latin and 
Greek. In the study of these he persevered, 
as well as circumstances permitted him, and 
became acquainted with the medicinal works 
of the old practitioners memorable in Greece 
and Rome. He made several voyages to 
France, and perfected himself in the French 
language. He quitted the sea-service, and 
turned merchant. At Paris he gave loose to 
the early inclinations he had engendered from 
his reading, and applied himself to the study of 
anatomy ; and had for his associate the cele- 
brated English philosopher Hobbes ; they read 
Vesalius together. 

After some time he returned to England, and 
entered at Oxford. By persevering application 
he obtained repute, and his anatomical know- 
ledge was considered as very great. He procured 
a dead subject to be brought from Reading to 


Oxford, and demonstrated it with great judg- 
ment and ability; this was the first human 
subject that was publicly dissected there.*—*. 


Marc Catozze, commonly called the little 
dwarf, was born at Venice, of robust parents, 
and had several brothers, strong and well 
formed. He died a few years ago at Paris, 
aged sixty-two years.. The trunk of the body 
exhibited nothing remarkable, and appeared to 
belong to a person of about five feet six inches 
in height; there was, however, no scrotum. 
The upper extremities consisted of merely two 
prominent shoulders, to which were attached 
two hands, without either arms or fore-arms. 
The lower extremities consisted of a flattened 
plane, (une fesse applatie) to which were ap- 
pended two ill-formed feet, without thighs or 
legs. As Catozze could not feed himself, or 
bring his hands to his mouth, Nature had fur- 
nished him with a curious under-jaw, which he 
used as an elephant uses his proboscis; at least, 
with this he managed his victuals very well. 
Catozze was very fond of women, wine, and good 
cheer. He was also fond of society, and spoke 
and wrote several languages. On dissection, 
several peculiarities were observed in the interior 
of the trunk, but they need not be recorded here. 



In Riolan " Reckerches Curieuses sur les Ecoles 
de la Medicine," written against Courtant's book 
in favour of Montpellier, is an account of the 
faculty of medicine at Paris, which consisted 
then of six score physicians, who were alone 
legal practitioners. Six of these were biennially 
appointed to give lectures for two years on the 
different parts of medicine. 

These lectures were gratuitous to all comers ; 
but the other physicians were not hindered from 
lecturing if they chose. 

The requisites for becoming a member of the 
faculty, were six years study in Paris itself; 
namely, two attending the lectures, two reading 
theses themselves, and occasional disputations ; 
the last two visiting patients as assistants to 
another practitioner. This course was required, 
although the party had previously studied ever 
so long elsewhere. 

The fees were high, and, when paid, the gra- 
duate had all the same privileges as the other 

If the parties were poor, they need not pay 
any fees; but, in this case, they became mere 
licentiates, and had no share in the affairs of the 

The faculty deputed two members, in rota- 


tion, to give advice on Wednesday and Satur- 
day mornings, at their Hall, to all comers; and 
they contracted with an apothecary to dispense 
these prescriptions at their own expence, which 
cost them 12,000 livres, or 5001. sterling. 

The king's first physician, from which office 
members of the faculty of medicine at Paris were 
studiously excluded, might admit as many phy- 
sicians to the king and the members of the royal 
family as he pleased, provided they were gra- 
duated doctors in some university, which was 
usually Montpellier, where they were admitted 
doctors in six months. These physicians to the 
king and royal family might practise in Paris, 
or wherever any of the royal palaces were situ- 
ated. Riverius, Mayerne (or Turquet), Quer- 
cetanus (or Violet), were of this class, and in- 
troduced chemical physic. Macquer, and the 
other professors of the royal garden, so well 
known as chemists, were physicians au roy, and 
not members of the medical faculty. 

The surgeons of the long-robe in Paris, (pure 
surgeons) were offended at the anatomical lec- 
tures of the faculty of medicine being public, as 
affording means for the barber-surgeons and 
apothecaries acquiring a knowledge of it. Their 
own lectures are confined to their apprentices. 

The faculty of medicine accused the king's 
physicians as exhibiting emetic tartar, and a 


number of nostrums or secret medicines, in all 
cases, ever so simple. They, in their turn, ac- 
cuse the regular faculty of using no other reme- 
dies but bleeding, senna, bran, and stick-liquor- 
ice ; and of writing their prescriptions for the 
poor in the vulgar tongue, to the great injury 
of other practitioners. 


This celebrated physician, whose supposed 
preparations of the arteries, veins, &c. of a 
human subject, were lately presented to the 
Royal College of Physicians of London, by the 
Earl of Winchelsea, was born at Folkstone, in 
the year 1578. — After finishing his classical 
education at the University of Cambridge, he 
studied the different branches of medicine, 
chiefly under the eminent Italian physician 
Jerome Fabricius, at Padua, where he obtained 
the degree of M. D. On his return to England, 
he was incorporated Doctor of Physic in Cam- 
bridge ; soon after which he took his rank in 
London, of a Fellow of the Royal College, to 
which his residence in the English University 
entitled him. 

Being well acquainted with anatomy and 
surgery, he was elected by the members of the 
College, lecturer on these important branches 
of medicine. His mind having been much 


directed to the anatomy of the heart, and espe- 
cially to the circulation of the blood, by his 
teacher Fabricius, and convinced of the im- 
mense importance of a more correct knowledge 
of the offices of the heart and its appendages* 
the arteries and veins, he particularly directed 
his investigations to these subjects. 

The exact time when Harvey completed the 
discovery of the circulation of the blood is not 
known. Some writers suppose that he first 
promulgated it in the Lumley lecture in 1615- 
Like all new discoveries and doctrines, it ex- 
cited among the members of the profession 
considerable clamour. Harvey, although their 
benefactor, was assailed with torrents of abuse. 
The reputation, however, that Dr. Harvey 
acquired, induced James the First to appoint 
him his physician in ordinary — and, although 
he was deemed by some a courtier, his greatest 
enemy never accused him of being a toad-eater. 
— It is said that when James the First requested 
his opinion of a dropsical affection of his legs, 
he frankly observed, " I assure your majesty I 
would not have your two legs for your three 
kingdoms." Dr. Harvey was chosen, during 
his absence, president of the Royal College of 
Physicians, an honour he declined, in conse- 
quence of his advanced age. The Doctor hav- 
ing no children, added to the college edifice, 


when it was in Amen-Corner, a combination- 
room, a library, and a museum ; and, in 1656, 
at the first feast which he instituted, to be con- 
tinued annually, he presented them with the 
title-deeds of all his estates. — He also made a 
provision for an annual oration, in honour of the 
benefactors to the college, and for the keeper 
of the library and museum. — The oration is 
regularly delivered on the 18th of October, in 
the Latin language. 

It is somewhat remarkable that Dr. Harvey, 
after presenting the College of Physicians with 
his estates, library, and other valuable per- 
sonals, should not also have given them the 
preparations of arteries, veins, &c, which were 
lately presented to them by the Earl of Win- 
chqfcea. The doctor had either forgotten 
them, or considered them of no value. The 
fact of their remaining so long concealed from 
the light, has induced some ill-natured anato- 
mists to suppose that, like the bone which was 
presented to his majesty by Captain Fitzcla- 
rence, as the thigh-bone of a King of Egypt, 
and which Sir Everard Home conveyed, with 
every mark of respect, to the College of bur- 
geons, they may turn out to be an exhibition of 
the veins, arteries, &c, of ap ass, calf, or some 
other brute, by a farrier; an idea, which the 
clumsy manner in which they are displayed and 


glued on the boards certainly favours ; for the 
royal thigh-bone, which Captain Fitzclarence 
obtained from an Egyptian sarcophagus., proved 
to be the thigh-bone of a cow ! 

Dr. Harvey died in the year 1657. This 
liberal, and truly great physician, had the gra- 
tification to survive the clamours of ignorance, 
envy, and prejudice, which had been raised 
against his doctrine of the circulation ; a doc- 
trine which length of time has most satisfac- 
torily confirmed, for every surgeon knows it 
from experience. In medicine it is of such 
great importance that it enables a practitioner 
to form some opinion either of the seat, nature, 
or probable issue of every malady. 

The Doctor was not only an excellent physi- 
cian, but an excellent man. His modesty, 
candour, and piety, (rare combination in phy- 
sicians of the present day) were equal to his 
knowledge ; the farther he penetrated into the 
wonders of nature, the more he venerated their 


Dr. Monsey was a man of strong passions, 
pointed wit, and a lively imagination. His wit 
was ardent, insatiable, and often troublesome ; 
but then his communication was rapid, copious, 
and interesting; he possessed a vein of humour, 


rich, luxuriant, and, like the nature of all hu- 
mour, sometimes gross, and sometimes inele- 
gant. His wit was not the keen, shining, well- 
tempered weapon of a Sheridan, a Courtenay, 
or a Burke ; it partook rather of the nature of 
the irresistible massy sabre of a Cossack, which, 
at the time that it cut down by the sharpness 
of its edge, demolished by the weight of the 
blow. To these qualities were added, deep 
penetration and an incredible memory, which 
poured, in an inexhaustible flow of words, the 
treasures of past years; which, at times, like 
other treasures, was not without its dross. He 
was a storehouse of anecdote, a reservoir of 
good things, and a chronicle of past times. His 
faults he either would not or could not conceal, 
they were prominent to all: — a vitiated taste, 
a neglected dress, unseemly deportment, and 
disgusting language, form the marked charac- 
teristics of this very singular man : who, even 
on his death-bed, maintained all the force of his 
singularity, by bequeathing his body for dissec- 
tion, an old velvet coat to one friend, and the 
buttons of it to another. In his will, he also 
inveighs bitterly against bishops, deans, and 
chapters ; and leaves annuities to two clergy- 
men who had resigned their preferment on 
account of the Athanasian doctrine. 


Dr. Monsey died, at his apartments in Chel- 
sea College, December 26, 1788, at the great 
age of 95. 


A quaker-apothecary meeting Dr. Fothergill 
thus accosted him, " Friend, Fothergill, I in- 
tend dining with thee to-day." — " I shall be glad 
to see thee," answered the doctor ; " but pray, 
friend, hast thou not some joke?" — " No joke, 
indeed," rejoined the apothecary, " but a very 
serious matter. Thou hast attended friend 
Ephraim these three days, and ordered him no 
medicine. I cannot, at this rate, live in my own 
house, and must live in thine." The doctor 
took the hint, and prescribed handsomely for 
the benefit of his friend Ephraim, and his friend 
Leech, the apothecary. 

\f. L6\U3, 21, FINCH-I**NE, LONDON. 

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